Listed Building

The only legal part of the listing under the Planning (Listing Buildings and Conservation Areas) (Scotland) Act 1997 is the address/name of site. Addresses and building names may have changed since the date of listing – see 'About Listed Buildings' below for more information. The further details below the 'Address/Name of Site' are provided for information purposes only.

Address/Name of Site

BEN CRUACHAN HYDRO ELECTRIC SCHEME, TURBINE HALLLB51688

Status: Designated

Documents

There are no additional online documents for this record.

Summary

Category
A
Date Added
11/02/2011
Local Authority
Argyll And Bute
Planning Authority
Argyll And Bute
Parish
Ardchattan And Muckairn
NGR
NN 07990 26720
Coordinates
207990, 726720

Description

James Williamson and Partners; George Rennie (resident engineer for North of Scotland hydro Electric Board technical panel); J B Armstrong (architect); 1959-65. Monumental underground barrel vaulted chamber forming turbine hall hollowed out from solid bedrock with long sloping vaulted access tunnel; additional chambers housing transformers and tunnels, one forming access roadway to machine hall. Large turbine hall 36 metres high, 90 metres long with viewing gallery to NE corner at upper level and concrete lined vaulted roof. Regularly spaced columns to N supporting track for overhead gantry cranes. Tiled floor. Control panels to S wall with large inlaid timber mural by Elizabeth Faulkner above to SE. Alternating timber panels and acoustic baffling panels of concrete consisting of regular geometric shapes to remainder of S wall. Offices to S including control room at upper level with projecting faceted timber and plate glass window overlooking turbine hall floor; transformer room and surge shaft to far S. Large overhead lighting panels with lights contained by panelled timber wings cantilevered from large central beam. Matt grey square ceramic tiles to entrance and replacement tiles to turbine hall.

ACCESS TUNNEL: vaulted vehicular access tunnel running for 1 kilometre from tunnel entrance. Terminating in round arched entrance to turbine hall lined with rectangular slate tiles. Pedestrian entrance to offices directly adjacent to left (E) with split slate tiles forming apron around doorway.

Statement of Special Interest

Ben Cruachan Turbine hall forms and A-group with Ben Cruachan Dam (see separate listing). Ben Cruachan turbine hall is a monumental engineering achievement and an integral part of one Britain's most innovative hydro electric power schemes and the first example of the use of reversible turbine pumped storage technology. The 3240 cubic metre turbine hall was hollowed out entirely from solid bedrock and is set deep within the side of the Ben Cruachan ridge. The turbine hall is accessed by a 1 kilometre long vehicular access tunnel. The lower end of the tunnel terminates in 'the crossroads' where secondary tunnels give access to visitors viewing gallery, transformer hall and surge shaft. The housing of a power station of this scale wholly underground in addition to secondary features such as transformers and pressure tunnels was pioneering and allowed for the development of a power station large enough to play a nationally significant role in energy supply in an area renowned for scenic beauty with very limited visual impact. The station exhibits a number of period design features dating from the 1960s including the timber artwork panel by Elizabeth Faulkner and careful attention to detail in lighting and acoustic design, all with imaginative uses of timber and concrete.

Cruachan was groundbreaking in its use of pumped storage when it was opened by the Queen in 1965, and still provides vital peak load capacity today. During periods of cheap electricity the turbines are run in reverse to pump water from Loch Awe back up into the reservoir, a process which provides 90% of the water used for generation by the station. Prior to the design of Cruachan pumped storage facilities had required separate pumps and a separate pipe network to pump water back into reservoirs, making them much more expensive to build than conventional hydro systems. The use of reversible turbines at Cruachan was highly innovative and removed the costly requirement for separate pumping infrastructure. The reversible technology was first developed in the 1930s, but Cruachan was one of the first large-scale applications in Europe. The Lünerseewerk station of 1958 in Austria pre-dates Cruachan, but has a smaller capacity of 232 MW. The technology became more widely used, in Britain and worldwide, from the later 1960s onwards with further schemes in Wales at Ffestiniog in 1963 with a 360MW station

The turbine hall houses four turbines capable of a combined capacity of 440MW with 2 sets generating at 120 MW and the original 2 at 100MW. Each set uses approximately 110MW of power to pump water back up to the dam (see separate listing). The station can move from standstill to full generating output in under 2 minutes, compared to a time of several hours for a thermal power station. The station fulfils a key strategic requirement for the UK with the capability to produce enough power to re-start essential services nationwide (a so called 'Black Start').

Cruachan was the penultimate of the major post-war hydro electric developments by the North of Scotland Hydro electric Board (NoSHEB). The scheme played a key role in the realisation of the social agenda of NoSHEB by generating electricity which could be easily exported to the grid (via a connection at Windyhill on the fringe of Glasgow) and sold to Scotland's central belt. Revenue from the sale of the power subsidised the provision of electricity to remote north Highland communities on loss making schemes and stimulated economic regeneration. Under the leadership of eminent chairman Sir Tom Johnston the board undertook developments throughout Highland Scotland. This commitment saw the development of schemes in locations such as Loch Dubh near Ullapool and Storr Lochs on Skye. Johnstone's social aspirations ensured these schemes remained a key part of the NoSHEB development plan.

The design is typical of Williamson and Partners approach. James Williamson had completed a large number of innovative designs on behalf of NoSHEB, including developing the buttress dam which he first used at Loch Sloy (see separate listing) before his death in 1953. The scale and degree of innovation behind the plans for Cruachan is characteristic of the skill of the firm and their long experience with hydro power and commitment to developing Scotland's resources. Williamson had specialised in the design of dams following his work on the Galloway Hydro Electric scheme (see separate listings) in the 1930s. He acted as one of the chief engineering advisors to NoSHEB and was the lead engineer for a number of schemes before his death in 1953. After this date the company of James Williamson and Partners continued to be closely involved in the work of NoSHEB and were the lead team of engineers on a number of schemes, including Cruachan.

(Listed 2011 as part of Hydro Electric Power Thematic Survey)

References

Bibliography

National Archives of Scotland (NAS), Ref: NSE North of Scotland Hydro Electric Board Collection (1943 -1990); NAS, Ref: NSE1 North of Scotland Hydro Electric Board Minutes (1943-1990); NAS, Ref NSE2 North of Scotland Hydro Electric Board Annual Reports (1943-1990); Peter Payne, The Hydro: A Study of the Development of the Major Hydro-Electric Schemes Undertaken by the North of Scotland Hydro-Electric Board, (1988); Emma Wood, The Hydro Boys, (2002), p178-79; J Miller, The Dam Builders: Power from the Glens, 2002, p230-40; F A Walker, The Buildings of Scotland: Argyll and Bute (2000) p375.

About Listed Buildings

Historic Environment Scotland is responsible for designating sites and places at the national level. These designations are Scheduled monuments, Listed buildings, Inventory of gardens and designed landscapes and Inventory of historic battlefields.

We make recommendations to the Scottish Government about historic marine protected areas, and the Scottish Ministers decide whether to designate.

Listing is the process that identifies, designates and provides statutory protection for buildings of special architectural or historic interest as set out in the Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) (Scotland) Act 1997.

We list buildings which are found to be of special architectural or historic interest using the selection guidance published in Designation Policy and Selection Guidance (2019)

Listed building records provide an indication of the special architectural or historic interest of the listed building which has been identified by its statutory address. The description and additional information provided are supplementary and have no legal weight.

These records are not definitive historical accounts or a complete description of the building(s). If part of a building is not described it does not mean it is not listed. The format of the listed building record has changed over time. Earlier records may be brief and some information will not have been recorded.

The legal part of the listing is the address/name of site which is known as the statutory address. Other than the name or address of a listed building, further details are provided for information purposes only. Historic Environment Scotland does not accept any liability for any loss or damage suffered as a consequence of inaccuracies in the information provided. Addresses and building names may have changed since the date of listing. Even if a number or name is missing from a listing address it will still be listed. Listing covers both the exterior and the interior and any object or structure fixed to the building. Listing also applies to buildings or structures not physically attached but which are part of the curtilage (or land) of the listed building as long as they were erected before 1 July 1948.

While Historic Environment Scotland is responsible for designating listed buildings, the planning authority is responsible for determining what is covered by the listing, including what is listed through curtilage. However, for listed buildings designated or for listings amended from 1 October 2015, legal exclusions to the listing may apply.

If part of a building is not listed, it will say that it is excluded in the statutory address and in the statement of special interest in the listed building record. The statement will use the word 'excluding' and quote the relevant section of the 1997 Act. Some earlier listed building records may use the word 'excluding', but if the Act is not quoted, the record has not been revised to reflect subsequent legislation.

Listed building consent is required for changes to a listed building which affect its character as a building of special architectural or historic interest. The relevant planning authority is the point of contact for applications for listed building consent.

Find out more about listing and our other designations at www.historicenvironment.scot/advice-and-support. You can contact us on 0131 668 8914 or at designations@hes.scot.

Images

There are no images available for this record, you may want to check Canmore for images relating to BEN CRUACHAN HYDRO ELECTRIC SCHEME, TURBINE HALL

There are no images available for this record.

Search Canmore

Printed: 01/12/2022 17:04