Listed Building

The only legal part of the listing under the Planning (Listing Buildings and Conservation Areas) (Scotland) Act 1997 is the address/name of site. Addresses and building names may have changed since the date of listing – see 'About Listed Buildings' below for more information. The further details below the 'Address/Name of Site' are provided for information purposes only.

Address/Name of Site

County Buildings including Lerwick Sheriff Court House and Police Station, boundary walls, gatepiers and railings and excluding 2-storey concrete rendered block to north, Hillhead, LerwickLB37263

Status: Designated

Documents

There are no additional online documents for this record.

Summary

Category
B
Date Added
18/10/1977
Last Date Amended
09/09/2015
Supplementary Information Updated
12/08/1996
Local Authority
Shetland Islands
Planning Authority
Shetland Islands
Burgh
Lerwick
NGR
HU 47451 41468
Coordinates
447451, 1141468

Description

David Rhind of Edinburgh, 1874-5. Irregular complex of single and 2-storey, crow stepped, Scots Baronial buildings consisting of county buildings to the south with taller court at rear to north and with police station and former prison extending north. The 2-storey concrete rendered extension to north is not considered of special architectural interest in listing terms at the time of review.

The building is set within its own grounds in a prominent position in Lerwick. Stugged, squared and snecked sandstone ashlar walls with contrasting droved ashlar dressings and details. Main buildings with base courses, curved corners, chamfered arrises and shallow pointed-arched lintels to windows. There are some bipartite window openings.

Asymmetrical 4-bay entrance elevation to south with advanced central bays and 6-panel 2-leaf timber entrance door with datestone set in stepped hoodmould above.

Predominantly 4-pane glazing in timber sash and case windows. Small cell windows to former prison. Grey slates. Decorative brattishing to court house and cast iron rainwater goods, some hoppers dated 1875. Apex and wallhead coped chimney stacks. Skewputts.

The interior of the court house was seen in 2014 and the interior of the police station was seen in 1996. There is a marble slab chimneypiece, 4-panel doors, panelled shutters and a coved plaster ceiling in county hall. Boarded ceiling in county clerk's office. Stone stair with cast iron balusters and timber handrail. Many original fittings surviving in courtroom, including curved bench, witness box, jury box, dock with metal railings, public bench and press bench, all in panelled pine. Vertically-boarded timber wainscoting, panelled shutters, architraved doors, coved and coffered ceiling. Stone prison stair with plain balusters and timber handrail.

Low, saddleback coped and stepped boundary walls to south and east with iron railings. Square gatepiers with pyramidal caps. Iron lamp bracket oversailing south gate. High random rubble wall to surrounding former prison yard to north and east.

Statement of Special Interest

Lerwick County Buildings was built in 1874-5 by the Edinburgh architect David Rhind. The complex is a prominent and significant civic building in the town with its distinctive crow-stepped gables and differing roof lines. With the exception of the circa 2003 addition the building has been little altered to its exterior and the courtroom is of particular interest in retaining many late 19th century fittings.

The Lerwick County Buildings, comprising the sheriff court, police station and prison was opened in 1875. The building is depicted on the 1st Edition Ordnance Survey map of Lerwick (surveyed 1877), in roughly the same irregular plan as currently, with the exception of the 2003 extension to the rear. The former prison now forms part of the police station, and the building now only contains holding cells.

During the early part of the 19th century, the court and prison functions in Lerwick were carried out in the Tolbooth (see separate listing) and were moved to Fort Charlotte (Scheduled Monument, SM No 90145) in 1837. Negotiations for a new court house and prison resulted in the current building being constructed over 2 years and it opened in 1875. The contractor was a Mr D Outerson, who employed local labour. When the building opened, there was a large procession in the town with the county sheriff coming specially north for the event. In his book Shetland in the last Half-Century, Ian Manson wrote 'the County Buildings are certainly a credit to the burgh from an architectural standpoint; and from the commanding position they occupy are one of the first buildings in the town that the eye catches when Lerwick is first seen'.

David Rhind (1808-1883) began training as an architect in circa 1828 in the offices of A C Pugin and completed his training in Italy. He was a highly regarded architect of the mid to late 19th century period in Scotland. Working in a variety of styles from Gothic to Baronial to neoclassical, Rhind was a prominent designer of commercial buildings, notably in his role as principal architect to the Commercial Bank of Scotland. Rhind served as an architect to the Prison Board and designed many courts, such as Wick (1862-66), Dumfries (1863-5) and Selkirk (1867). His court house designs were stylistically varied, although he often referred to traditional tower house architecture precedents.

The development of the court house as a building type in Scotland follows the history of the Scottish legal system and wider government reforms. The majority of purpose-built court houses were constructed in the 19th century as by this time there was an increase in the separation of civic, administrative and penal functions into separate civic and institutional buildings, and the resultant surge of public building was promoted by new institutional bodies. The introduction of the Sheriff Court Houses (Scotland) Act of 1860 gave a major impetus to the increase and improvement of court accommodation and the provision of central funding was followed by the most active period of sheriff court house construction in the history of the Scottish legal system, and many new court houses were built or reworked after this date.

Court houses constructed after 1860 generally had a solely legal purpose and did not incorporate a prison, other than temporary holding cells. The courts were designed in a variety of architectural styles but often relied heavily on Scots Baronial features to reference the fortified Scottish building tradition. Newly constructed court buildings in the second half of the 19th century dispensed with large public spaces such as county halls and instead provided bespoke office accommodation for the sheriff, judge and clerks, and accommodated the numerous types of court and holding cells.

The 2-storey, concrete rendered extension to north is not considered of special interest in listing terms at the time of the review (2014-15).

Statutory address and listed building record revised as part of the Scottish Courts Listing Review 2014-15. Previously listed as 'King Erik Street and Market Street, Police Station, County Buildings and Sheriff Courthouse (Formerly Zetland County Buildings), Including Boundary Walls, Gatepiers and Railings'.

References

Bibliography

Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland: http://www.rcahms.gov.uk/canmore.html CANMORE ID 216933.

Ordnance Survey (Surveyed 1877, Published 1881) Shetland, Sheet LIII.13. 25 inches to the mile. 1st Edition. London: Ordnance Survey.

The Scottish Civic Trust (1983) Historic Buildings at Work. Glasgow: The Scottish Civic Trust. p.167.

Brown, R. (ed) (1985) The Architectural Outsiders. London: Waterstone.

Irvine, J. W. (1985) Lerwick; the Birth and Growth of an Island Town. Lerwick: Lerwick Community Council.

Finnie, M. (1990) Shetland. Edinburgh: Mainstream Publications. p.27.

Manson, T. (1991) Lerwick During the Last Half Century (1867-1917). 2nd Edition. Lerwick: Lerwick Community Council.

Gifford, J. (1992) The Buildings of Scotland: Highlands and Islands. London: Penguin. p.489.

Historic Scotland (2014) Scottish Courts Preliminary Report at http://www.historic-scotland.gov.uk/scottish-courts-preliminary-report.pdf

Dictionary of Scottish Architects. David Rhind at http://www.scottisharchitects.org.uk/architect_full.php?id=100331 [accessed 23 October 2014].

Further information courtesy of Lerwick Court staff (2014).

About Listed Buildings

Historic Environment Scotland is responsible for designating sites and places at the national level. These designations are Scheduled monuments, Listed buildings, Inventory of gardens and designed landscapes and Inventory of historic battlefields.

We make recommendations to the Scottish Government about historic marine protected areas, and the Scottish Ministers decide whether to designate.

Listing is the process that identifies, designates and provides statutory protection for buildings of special architectural or historic interest as set out in the Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) (Scotland) Act 1997.

We list buildings which are found to be of special architectural or historic interest using the selection guidance published in Designation Policy and Selection Guidance (2019)

Listed building records provide an indication of the special architectural or historic interest of the listed building which has been identified by its statutory address. The description and additional information provided are supplementary and have no legal weight.

These records are not definitive historical accounts or a complete description of the building(s). If part of a building is not described it does not mean it is not listed. The format of the listed building record has changed over time. Earlier records may be brief and some information will not have been recorded.

The legal part of the listing is the address/name of site which is known as the statutory address. Other than the name or address of a listed building, further details are provided for information purposes only. Historic Environment Scotland does not accept any liability for any loss or damage suffered as a consequence of inaccuracies in the information provided. Addresses and building names may have changed since the date of listing. Even if a number or name is missing from a listing address it will still be listed. Listing covers both the exterior and the interior and any object or structure fixed to the building. Listing also applies to buildings or structures not physically attached but which are part of the curtilage (or land) of the listed building as long as they were erected before 1 July 1948.

While Historic Environment Scotland is responsible for designating listed buildings, the planning authority is responsible for determining what is covered by the listing, including what is listed through curtilage. However, for listed buildings designated or for listings amended from 1 October 2015, legal exclusions to the listing may apply.

If part of a building is not listed, it will say that it is excluded in the statutory address and in the statement of special interest in the listed building record. The statement will use the word 'excluding' and quote the relevant section of the 1997 Act. Some earlier listed building records may use the word 'excluding', but if the Act is not quoted, the record has not been revised to reflect subsequent legislation.

Listed building consent is required for changes to a listed building which affect its character as a building of special architectural or historic interest. The relevant planning authority is the point of contact for applications for listed building consent.

Find out more about listing and our other designations at www.historicenvironment.scot/advice-and-support. You can contact us on 0131 668 8914 or at designations@hes.scot.

Images

County Buildings including Lerwick Sheriff Court House and Police Station, principal elevation, looking north, during daytime on an overcast day
Police Station, east elevation, looking west, during daytime on an overcast day.

Printed: 29/11/2021 05:07