Listed Building

The only legal part of the listing under the Planning (Listing Buildings and Conservation Areas) (Scotland) Act 1997 is the address/name of site. Addresses and building names may have changed since the date of listing – see 'About Listed Buildings' below for more information. The further details below the 'Address/Name of Site' are provided for information purposes only.

Address/Name of Site


Status: Designated


There are no additional online documents for this record.


Date Added
Local Authority
Planning Authority
NT 26299 74155
326299, 674155


C.R. Cockerell and W. H. Playfair, designed 1823-1826, built 1826-9. Temple (unfinished) in the form of the Parthenon; octastyle Greek Doric colonnade with two return columns to either side. Polished Craigleith ashlar (squared snecked rubble to substructure). Substructure supporting 3-step stylobate; fluted columns supporting architrave with guttae to top.

Statement of Special Interest

The National Monument is of great importance for several reasons. Individually, although by no means complete, it is a building of very high quality and workmanship, and represents work by two of the early nineteenth century's most eminent architects. It has historical and political significance as a Scottish monument to the Scottish troops that died in the Napoleonic Wars. It is of immense significance due to its architectural style, which causes it to be a cornerstone of Edinburgh's reputation as the 'Athens of the North'.

The idea of a National Monument to honour the dead of the Napoleonic Wars was first suggested by the Highland Society of Scotland in 1816. The decision to have a separate monument for Scotland was highly significant culturally and politically. Some argued that the function of commemoration would be more appropriately fulfilled by a single British monument in London. However, following Edinburgh's more overtly pro-Union stance in the later eighteenth century, it was felt by many that Edinburgh, and Scotland in general, although part of the Empire, should be able to express their individuality and national identity. The situation was likened to that of Athens under Roman rule, subsumed into a wider empire, but seen as stronger in terms of intellect and culture. Edinburgh was therefore beginning to be seen as Athens to London's Rome, a claim which was strengthened by Scots achievements during the Enlightenment, and the extensive adoption of the Greek Revival style of the architecture of Edinburgh in the early nineteenth century.

Initially designs for Triumphal Arches were put forward, with one from Gillespie Graham, and a proposal from Archibald Elliot to place one at the end of his Waterloo Place. However, a committee of subscribers was formed and first met in 1819, deciding to erect a monument incorporating a church. Elliot was asked to produce a design, and put forward a circular hall, based on the Pantheon, with a church nave attached. However, there was growing public support for a design based on the Parthenon, and so Elliot revised his design accordingly in 1821. C.R.Cockerell is thought to have become involved as early as 1820, on the strength of his being one of the few people who knew well, and had accurate drawings of, the original Parthenon. He appears to have advised on the siting of the monument in 1822; in January 1822 an appeal was launched for #42,000 to 'erect a facsimile of the Parthenon'. On 27th August 1822, during the visit of George IV (who did not attend), there was a foundation ceremony.

In 1823, Elliot died, and an Act of Parliament was passed, allowing the progression of the monument project (although no financial support was offered). Cockerell was subsequently appointed architect to the project, and Playfair was later appointed as site architect. The proposal was to set the Parthenon on a platform formed by a large pilastraded substructure containing catacombs, with square pylons at the east end (the springing line and first few courses of the intended vaults can be seen on the interior walls). The first contract for construction, signed in 1826, was for around #15, 000; all that had been raised of the projected #42,000 total cost. The quality of workmanship was excellent, as was typical of Playfair. The materials were also top quality (best Craigleith stone) and expensive, as was the cost of construction itself; it was reputed to have taken 'twelve horses and 70 men to move some of the larger stones up the hill'. By 1829, the funding for the project was exhausted, and with no more forthcoming, the scheme was abandoned, with only the columns and architrave of the west portico completed.

Ever since work stopped on the monument, there have been numerous proposals for the completion of the building, in various ways and for various reasons. In the earlier part of the nineteenth century these schemes tended to push for completion of the monument of the original plan. At the turn of the century there were several suggestions, including finishing it as a monument to Queen Victoria (1901), to commemorate the Act of Union (1907), or even as the National Gallery (1907) or Parliament building (1908). In 1918 George Washington Browne proposed extending the monument and adding sculpture to create a memorial to those that fell in the Great War. However, as yet, the monument remains just as it did when the scaffolding came down in 1829, famously known as 'the pride and poverty of Scotland'.



WOOD'S Map, 1823. O.S. Map, 1854. PLAYFAIR COLLECTION, Edinburgh University Special Collections. RCAHMS photographic collection. A.J.Youngson, THE MAKING OF CLASSICAL EDINBURGH, (1966), pp159-160. The Scottish Georgian Society (Ed. N. Allen), SCOTTISH PIONEERS OF THE GREEK REVIVAL (1984), pp43-55. C. McKean, EDINBURGH: PORTRAIT OF A CITY, (1991), pp150-153. Gifford, McWilliam and Walker, EDINBURGH, (1991), p437. Edinburgh City Council, CALTON HILL CONSERVATION REPORT, (1999). John Lowrey, FROM CAESAREA TO ATHENS, article in the Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, 60/2, June 2001, p136-157.

About Listed Buildings

Historic Environment Scotland is responsible for designating sites and places at the national level. These designations are Scheduled monuments, Listed buildings, Inventory of gardens and designed landscapes and Inventory of historic battlefields.

We make recommendations to the Scottish Government about historic marine protected areas, and the Scottish Ministers decide whether to designate.

Listing is the process that identifies, designates and provides statutory protection for buildings of special architectural or historic interest as set out in the Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) (Scotland) Act 1997.

We list buildings which are found to be of special architectural or historic interest using the selection guidance published in Designation Policy and Selection Guidance (2019)

Listed building records provide an indication of the special architectural or historic interest of the listed building which has been identified by its statutory address. The description and additional information provided are supplementary and have no legal weight.

These records are not definitive historical accounts or a complete description of the building(s). If part of a building is not described it does not mean it is not listed. The format of the listed building record has changed over time. Earlier records may be brief and some information will not have been recorded.

The legal part of the listing is the address/name of site which is known as the statutory address. Other than the name or address of a listed building, further details are provided for information purposes only. Historic Environment Scotland does not accept any liability for any loss or damage suffered as a consequence of inaccuracies in the information provided. Addresses and building names may have changed since the date of listing. Even if a number or name is missing from a listing address it will still be listed. Listing covers both the exterior and the interior and any object or structure fixed to the building. Listing also applies to buildings or structures not physically attached but which are part of the curtilage (or land) of the listed building as long as they were erected before 1 July 1948.

While Historic Environment Scotland is responsible for designating listed buildings, the planning authority is responsible for determining what is covered by the listing, including what is listed through curtilage. However, for listed buildings designated or for listings amended from 1 October 2015, legal exclusions to the listing may apply.

If part of a building is not listed, it will say that it is excluded in the statutory address and in the statement of special interest in the listed building record. The statement will use the word 'excluding' and quote the relevant section of the 1997 Act. Some earlier listed building records may use the word 'excluding', but if the Act is not quoted, the record has not been revised to reflect subsequent legislation.

Listed building consent is required for changes to a listed building which affect its character as a building of special architectural or historic interest. The relevant planning authority is the point of contact for applications for listed building consent.

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Printed: 08/02/2023 23:37