Mainly mid-late 13th century with mid-12th century and later tower; restored 1889 by Sir Robert Rowand Anderson. Cathedral church, largely of early Gothic (largely First Pointed) design (with some alterations); 8-bay aisled nave with square-plan Romanesque tower (later upper storeys Gothic) short octagonal spire to south; lower Lady Chapel (originally chapter house) projects to north of choir. Coursed dressed yellow sandstone (red sandstone to tower) with ashlar dressings. Moulded tiered base course; plain base course to tower. Cill band at lower level to choir, nave and aisles; bracketed eaves bands; parapet to choir. Bays divided externally by shallow buttresses; those to clerestory of nave and north side of choir gableted at apex; those to south side of choir surmounted by plain tapered pinnacles. Windows largely gothic/pointed-arched with hoodmoulds and splayed reveals. Coped gables.
Tower: 6-stage, projecting to right of centre of south aisle. Band course at base of each stage, parapet with angle bartisans at apex. Narrow round-arched window to centre of 1st stage of south and west elevations; narrow rectangular window to each of outer faces (south, west and east) to 2nd stage; slightly larger round-arched window (divided into 2 round-arched lights by central shaft with plain capital and base to each face above, upper 2 storeys added circa 1500. Y-traceried bipartite windows to each face to each of upper 2 storeys (except possibly to north side of lower storey); those to lower stage obscured by later clock faces. Coat-of-arms of Bishop James Chisholm to parapet.
Nave: 8-bay; lean-to aisle roofs projecting length of nave to either side; generally with single round-arched mullioned quadripartite (with pointed plate tracery lights) to each bay of aisle and pair of smaller pointed-arched windows to clerestory above, some with transitional plate/bar tracery. Large transitional plate/bar-traceried gabled window breaking eaves at east end of aisle on both sides (creating transept-like appearance); that to south more sophisticated with clustered shafts forming mullions. Large plain replacement mullioned segmental-headed tripartites to 2 bays to outer right of aisle to north elevation. 3rd and 4th bays from right to south side occupied by tower at aisle level. Entrances to penultimate bay from right to south elevation and to 3rd bay from right to north elevation; each with moulded gothic archways with flanking nook-shafts set diagonally and late 19th century 2-leaf boarded timber doors with strap hinges. Smaller pointed-arched entrance, surmounted (at aisle level) by small round-arched bipartite to penultimate bay from left to south side. Pointed-arched mullioned bipartite to right return of south aisle (north aisle adjoins Lady Chapel).
Choir: 6-bay. North Elevation: Lady Chapel projects 5 bays to right, as continuation of nave aisle; segmental-headed/pointed-arched mullioned tripartite to each bay (arch of those to outer flanking bays more steeply pitched); pair of small lancet windows above to 2 bays to outer left and penultimate bay to right. Slightly projecting stack breaking eaves, incorporating 2-tier gableted buttress between 2 bays to outer right; 3 octagonal upper storeys, panelled. Outer flanking buttresses wider; that to right (adjoining nave aisle) incorporating small lancet window. Round-arched mullioned tripartite to left return; irregular pointed-arched mullioned tripartite above. Pointed-arched mullioned tripartite set back at clerestory level to each bay to main body of choir. Tall window with geometric bar tracery (15th century with late 19th century tracery) to outer left bay. South Elevation: tall window with geometric bar tracery (15th century with late 19th century tracery) to each bay; dividing buttresses surmounted by plain pinnacles (circa 1500 and bearing crest of Bishop Chisholm).
East end: large central window with geometric bar tracery and clustered shafts forming mullions (15th century with late 19th century tracery); narrow flanking lights. Projecting eaves-level buttresses to either side flanked by buttresses at right angles; surmounted by tall 15th century pinnacles with spire-like caps. Cross finial to gable.
West end: central pointed-arched entrance with deep splayed reveals; late 19th century 2-leaf boarded timber door with elaborate strap hinges. Flanking blind pointed arches, each with trefoiled head; both supported on carved shafts. Arcade of 3 tall pointed-arched windows above; each with transitional tracery. Vesica, reveal carved with foliage to gablehead (with cross finial). Flanking eaves-height buttresses to nave; that to left forming part of square-plan stair tower with pyramid roof; End walls of aisles set back to either side; both with shallow gables.
Grey slate roofs. Fixed leaded light windows, most of larger ones with stained glass. Cast-iron down pipes and hoppers probably dating from late 19th century restoration.
Interior: retains some early fixtures and monuments and much fine stained glass and woodwork of late 19th/early 20th century date. Vaulted timber roofs to aisle and choir (both originally timber-roofed); that to nave (1893 during restoration of cathedral) decorated with bosses representing coats-of-arms of feudal patrons of cathedral. Stone vaulting (series of 5 groin vaults) to Lady Chapel; bosses carved with foliage. Stone pointed ribbed barrel vault at base of tower.
Choir: timber choir screen by Sir Robert Rowand Anderson, 1889-93. Organ case adapted to accommodate 1989 Flentrop organ. Communion table incorporating ogee-headed panels by Sir Robert Rowand Anderson. Some 15th century choir stalls commissioned by Bishop Ochiltree (1429-47) flanking communion table with carved misericords including bat, dragon, green man and thistle motifs. Aumbry to south wall; moulded pointed-arched recess with nook shafts to north wall incorporating tomb with effigy of Bishop, thought to be Clement (builder of cathedral and bishop from 1233-58). South windows by Louis Davis east window depicting life of Christ and four Old Testament prophets by Charles E Kempe.
Lady Chapel (formerly Chapter House): converted to war memorial circa 1918. Timber panelling. Stained glass windows by Douglas Strachan and Gordon Webster. Nave: bays divided by piers comprising clustered shafts with bell capitals supporting pointed arches with finely moulded reveals. Clerestory forming unbroken arcade; windows of similar design to external ones with transitional plate/bar tracery but also with clustered piers to vertical shafts. Octagonal pulpit and sounding board by Rowand Anderson,1889-93. Large brass pulpit on octagonal base with lions at base; probably later 19th century. Pews by Sir Robert Lorimer. Canopied choir stalls of circa 1500 (commissioned by Bishop James Chisholm) flanking west entrance. Carved stone font bearing date 1879 (in SW corner) by Rowand Anderson. Great Bell (founded 1612, recast 1660 and 1809) and Lesser Bell (founded 1687, recast 1723) situated in N aisle. West window depicting Tree of Jesse, 1906, by Clayton and Bell of London. East window of north aisle, Compassion of Christ, 1968 by Gordon Webster. West window of south aisle, Baptism of Christ, 1926, by Douglas Strachan; adjacent window, St George and Hope, 1915, by Louis Davis; 2 windows to left, Departure and Arrival (based on 'Nunc Dimittis'), 1917 by Louis Davis. 2 windows at east end of south aisle by Charles E Kempe, other depicting saints, or Christ/as Good Shepherd. Wrought-iron pendant light fittings, 1935.
Clement Chapel: small chamber with quadripartite rib vault at west end of south aisle; dedicated as chapel 1964; small stained glass window, Bishop Clement by Gordon Webster, 1964; brass bas relief, Christ in Majesty by Maxwell Allan, 1964.
Grey slate roofs. Fixed leaded glass windows, larger ones with stained glass. Rainwater goods appear to largely date from late 19th century restoration (one of hoppers dated 1890).
Churchyard and boundary wall: low rubble boundary wall with rounded and ridged coping, largely late 19th century; some taller sections with slab coping. Pointed-arched gateway, Riccarton's Stile, to east side; 1814 by William Stirling. Churchyard contains several interesting 18th century gravestones, including to Lennox family carved with skull and crossbones and cherub. Various 19th century cast-iron gravestones. 2 lantern standards flanking east end and one by south gateway; all comprising ashlar shafts surmounted by cast/wrought-iron posts with lanterns at apex; that to south more elaborate with cast-iron post, possibly by Lorimer (early 20th century).
In accordance with Section 1 (4A) of the Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) (Scotland) Act 1997 the following are excluded from the listing: scheduled monument SM90109 (see separate designation record).