Inventory Garden & Designed Landscape

Colzium Lennox EstateGDL00410

Status: Designated


Where documents include maps, the use of this data is subject to terms and conditions (


Date Added
Supplementary Information Updated
Local Authority
North Lanarkshire
Planning Authority
North Lanarkshire
NS 73038 78503
273038, 678503

The Colzium Lennox Estate is a largely intact designed landscape of high historical interest for connecting people to the past. With the exception of some private properties, most of the landscape is managed for public amenity with interpretation panels and a visitor hub. Landscape components span the 1600s to 1900s and encompass evidence for engineering, architecture and landscape design, all sited within part of the 1645 battlefield of Kilsyth. There are nine champion trees and the walled garden contains one of the best dwarf conifer collections in Scotland. The house and ancillaries contribute high architectural interest, while a mosaic of habitats including woodlands provides both nature conservation value and scenic interest, maintaining rural designed landscape character at the edge of Kilsyth.


Type of Site

A modest-scale estate landscape with house, open grounds, woodland glen walk, and a later 20th century garden in the walled garden.

Main Phases of Landscape Development

1770s–1860s; 1968–90s (walled garden)

Artistic Interest

Level of interest
  • Historic accounts of the 19th century praise the 'extensive' and 'romantic' pleasure grounds. More recent accounts commend the later 20th century garden in the walled garden.


Level of interest
  • Colzium Lennox Estate plays an important role in connecting people with the past. The designated area contains a large and important area of public amenity that was gifted to the people of Kilsyth in 1937. Interpretation of its diverse heritage is provided throughout the grounds and within a central visitor hub. This heritage spans the 1600s to the 1900s, and encompasses garden design, industry, engineering and the site of a 17th century battle.
  • The walled garden is an unusual example of a later 20th century public garden design that is also of interest for its plant and tree collections.


Level of interest
  • The wide-ranging horticultural collection in Colzium walled garden is maintained, labelled and has one of the best collections of dwarf conifers in Scotland. There are also over 100 varieties of snowdrop.
  • The Tree Register records nine champion trees in the designed landscape. There are six North Lanarkshire champions and three 'Remarkable' specimens recorded. The Eucommia ulmoides and one of the Nothofagus Antarctica specimens are also both Scottish champions.


Level of interest
  • Colzium House is recognised for its special architectural interest as a major example of a country house of late 18th and 19th century date, prominently sited at the centre of a largely intact designed landscape of parks, garden grounds and woodlands.
  • Estate ancillaries and ornamental architecture of the 17th–19th centuries, including the early ice-house, walled garden and footbridges contribute further interest, as does the Colzium Lade, built in the 1770s as part of the Forth and Clyde engineering works.


Level of interest
  • An earlier tower house and the 17th century ice-house were both excavated during the 1970s. As with many historic estate landscapes there is research potential for archaeological evidence to contribute to our understanding of the development and history of the estate of Kilsyth.
  • The designed landscape is partly located within the designated area of the Battle of Kilsyth, fought in 1645 and recognised for its importance on the Inventory of historic battlefields. It was the largest battle fought in Scotland during the period of the Civil Wars.


Level of interest
  • The canopy of the plantations and shelterbelts adds visual interest to the lower slopes of the Kilsyth Hills and provides contrast to both the urban areas of Kilsyth and the open hillsides that rise to the north. The estate woodland is particularly prominent in views east from Tak-ma-doon Road, and north from Stirling Road (A803), from where Colzium House can also be seen.

Nature Conservation

Level of interest
  • Although smaller than some Inventory estate landscapes, Colzium has a diverse mosaic of habitats comprising mixed and broadleaf woodland, open grassland, horticultural collections, and water elements, including the fast-flowing Colzium Burn, the lade, and the former curling pond. Together, these promote nature conservation and biodiversity.
  • The ice-house is reported to provide a roost for four different species of bats.
  • Most of the designed landscape is currently designated within the North Lanarkshire Local Plan as a site of importance for nature conservation (2020) (


Location and Setting

The designed landscape of the Colzium Lennox Estate occupies an area of sloping grounds at the foot of the Kilsyth Hills, just northeast of the town of Kilsyth in North Lanarkshire, and on the north side of the Kelvin Valley.


The surrounding landscape is largely open farmland, with a golf course to the west of Colzium and quarries to the north. Further north the ground rises behind the designed landscape to more rugged landform of open moorland character. Colzium Burn, which flows through a narrow, wooded glen along the eastern side of the designed landscape is one of a number of fast-flowing burns that drain these south-facing slopes into the Kelvin basin.



Colzium House is located at the centre of the designed landscape, surrounded by open parks, garden grounds and woodlands. The house is a vantage point for panoramic views south across the broad lowland valley. Likewise, the house can be seen against a backdrop of hills in views north from Stirling Road (A803), which is the main east-west road through Kilsyth.


The designed landscape extends to 45 hectares. It is bound to the south by Stirling Road (A803) and the edge of recent residential development (2020). It is bound to the west and northwest by the old Tak-me-doon road, which leads up through the Kilsyth Hills towards Stirling. Plantation and field boundaries and another minor road leading north to Riskend bound the designed landscape to the north and east.


Most of the land within the designed landscape is owned and managed by North Lanarkshire Council for public amenity. There are some private properties within the designated area that have no public access arrangements.

Site History

The structure of the present designed landscape at Colzium dates mainly to the late 18th–19th centuries. Previously it formed part of the more extensive estate of Kilsyth, held by the Livingstone family from the 15th century. The Livingstones had a residence at Colzium – a late medieval tower-house that stood just north of the present walled garden, but which was largely demolished by 1703 (Canmore ID 45908).


The place-name Colzium is of Gaelic origin, deriving from cuingleum (meaning 'defile leap' — a narrow gorge in a stream) (Drummond 2004: 263–4). Recorded as 'Colzem' in 1553, it appears as 'Colyam Cast' on Pont's map at the end of the 16th century with a symbol for a fortification (ibid; Pont circa 1583–96). Other elements of the early landscape included an ice-house of circa 1680 (which still survives), and garden grounds. The Ordnance Survey name book of 1858–61 states that Colzium House was built on the site of an earlier orchard (Stirlingshire vol.16: 85).  


In 1645, the Battle of Kilsyth was fought over these lands and an area of hillside to the east (Battle of Kilsyth, Inventory of historic battlefields, reference BTL13). Fought between Scottish Royalist and Government Troops, it was the largest battle of the period of Civil Wars and the last in which the Marquis of Montrose was victorious for the Royalist cause.


In the 18th century, Colzium changed hands several times. In 1715, William Livingstone, Viscount of Kilsyth, lost the estate of Kilsyth due to his involvement with the Jacobite cause and went into exile abroad. The forfeited estate reverted to the Crown and the next proprietor was the London-based York Buildings Company from 1719, whose agents purchased many confiscated estates across Scotland (National Records of Scotland: Catalogue reference E640). Later in the 18th century, the Campbells of Shawfield held the Kilsyth estate, either through ownership or as tacksmen (Dennison 2006; Gordon (ed.) 1845: 153).


William Roy's map of the mid-18th century shows 'Coylum' as one or two buildings within a settled, agricultural landscape, interspersed with areas of unimproved rough grounds. The Tak-me-doon road is mapped and labelled, as is the growing settlement of Kilsyth (Roy 1747-55). After Roy's survey, large-scale engineering projects transformed this landscape. Kilsyth found itself strategically sited on a new turnpike road from Kirkintilloch to Falkirk but was then bypassed by the 1790s route via Cumbernauld (Dennison 2006). Compensation came in the form of Scotland's first great inland waterway, the Forth and Clyde canal, which was under construction from 1768­–90­. As part of this, the marshland to the east of Colzium was dammed in the 1770s to create a large reservoir (now Banton Loch) and a canal feeder was dug across the Colzium lands to divert water from the Garrel Burn to the reservoir (see Colzium Lade, 'architectural features').


In 1783, the Kilsyth estate was bought by Sir Archibald Edmonstone, 11th of Duntreath (1717–1807), a politician from an established landowning family and stockholder of the East India Company ( He served in parliament from 1761–96 and held estates in Scotland and Northern Ireland, plus a residence in London. His surviving letters reveal a keen interest in furthering the family name and fortune and creating opportunities for his sons, two of whom were sent to India to make a "competent fortune" (quoted in Chancey 2003: 14–15). Edmonstone's purchase of the Kilsyth estate in 1783 at the age of 66 was likely only possible through a combination of financial ventures that included not only proceeds from the sale of the family estate in County Antrim, but also profits deriving from Britain's imperial interests in India (Chancey 2003: 15).


Edmonstone's investment heralded a period of change for the Colzium landscape. From 1783 to the mid­-19th century, building and landscape projects created much of the structure of the present designed landscape (2020). Chief among these was Colzium House (begun 1783) and other ancillaries, including the walled garden. New shelterbelts and plantations transformed the hillside that was previously largely bare of trees (Sinclair (ed.) 1796: 216; Gordon (ed.) 1845: 158; Grassom 1817). Edmonstone was the largest landowner in the parish and beyond the grounds immediately around Colzium House he implemented other works to enclose and improve fields and farm buildings (Gordon (ed.) 1845: 158).


Archibald Edmonstone died in 1807 at the age of 89 and ownership of the estate passed to succeeding generations of the Edmonstone family for the remainder of the 19th century. While industry in the form of mines and quarry pits changed the surrounding landscape and economy, the Colzium policies matured to become a secluded and established country house estate typical for its period. The Ordnance Survey name book describes a "…superior mansion house of modern erection with extensive pleasure grounds kept in fine order" (Ordnance Survey Name Books 1858–61). Newspaper reports of the 1860s, including one recording terrible floods in 1865, describe the grounds as 'romantic' (Falkirk Herald, 25 May 1865; Falkirk Herald, 20 August 1868).


More investment in the later 19th century included additions to Colzium House, more planting projects to extend and diversify tree-cover, and to create a new curling pond (Ordnance Survey, surveyed 1896 published 1898). From 1877–1917, a train station served Colzium House ( By this time, however, the Edmonstones largely used Duntreath as their main country residence.


The end of the Edmonstone tenure came in the earlier 20th century. Colzium was advertised for sale from 1919, and by 1930, William MacKay Lennox was the owner of the house and grounds (The Scotsman, 18 October 1919). On his retirement as a town clerk to Kilsyth Town Council in 1937, he gifted Colzium to the people of Kilsyth as a public park and recreation grounds, with the name Lennox added as a memorial to his mother (The Scotsman, 11 May 1937).


In 1967, the local authority also acquired the walled garden and work began on the current design and planting scheme. The garden is now well-known for its horticultural collection (see under 'walled garden'). The great storm of January 1968, which caused catastrophic damage across the central belt also took its toll on the Colzium policies (information courtesy of Glasgow Botanic Gardens).


Apart from some private properties within the designation boundary, the designed landscape remains in the ownership of North Lanarkshire council. The grounds form an important accessible greenspace for public amenity, with interpretation panels distributed around the grounds. The former clock theatre by the walled garden was remodelled in 2017 and is now a visitor hub with further information about Colzium and the wider area (2020).


The designed landscape currently retains its historic structure largely as created in the later 18th–19th centuries.


Landscape Components

Architectural Features

Colzium House was first built in 1783 for Archibald Edmonstone (1717-1807) and substantially enlarged in 1861. In the 1940s, major works took place to eradicate dry rot. The large house is in an L-plan and has classical design features such an Ionic columned entrance porch, Venetian windows and pedimented breaking eaves dormers. The south elevation faces the garden terraces and parkland and has a symmetrical, three-storey, four-bay section, flanked by gabled wings. The east-facing entrance elevation is two-storey, with a large corniced porch with paired Ionic columns and corresponding pilasters.


A rectangular-plan walled garden is located upslope and to the north of the house. It was built in the 1780s–90s, likely with stone from the ruins of the earlier Colzium Castle, the site of which is just to the north. The stone walls are lined with brick and there is a gabled ancillary building adjoining on the north, outer wall. The wrought-iron garden gate on the east wall was added in 1975.


Colzium Castle was a late medieval L-plan tower house with added hall block, demolished in circa 1703. Few above-ground fragments now survive, evident within the wall of a later building on the site (Canmore ID 45908).


The Visitor Centre (former Clock Theatre) is a two-storey, rectangular-plan building adjoining the southeast corner of the walled garden. Built in 1815 as a private chapel, it later served as a laundry (from 1861), and a small theatre (from 1974). In 2017, the building was again refurbished as a café and interpretation centre.


Due east of Colzium House, a large vaulted ice-house is built into the steep west bank of the Colzium Burn Glen. It dates to around 1680 and has a pedimented doorway, stone-paved passage and internal game-pit. Excavated in 1977, the ice-house is also a roost for four different species of bats (Kilsyth Community Council: [2020]).


Further north along the Colzium Glen Walk, there is a stone-built, semi-domed viewing shelter known as Granny's Mutch. Located on the west bank, it overlooks waterfalls and echoes back the sound of rushing water. The structure first appears on the revised Ordnance Survey map (surveyed 1896, published 1898) but recalls an 18th and 19th century fashion among country estate owners who embellished dramatic river walks with viewing platforms and shelters (Buxbaum 1989: 145-151).


Two stone footbridges span the Colzium Burn as part of the Glen Walk (see under Paths and Walks). A series of smaller footbridges also cross Colzium Lade along the south of the designed landscape. All have a matching architectural treatment of low rusticated stone parapets with a jagged profile.


Colzium Lade is a canal feeder – an artificial channel of water dug in the early 1770s to take water from the mill weir on the Garrel Burn due east to Banton Loch in order to supply the Forth and Clyde Canal (Sinclair (ed.) 1796: 224-25; Canmore ID 170781). To the south, alongside the canal-feeder, there are a number of squared stone blocks, inscribed FCN (Forth and Clyde Navigation) and mainly dated 1823 (not seen during site visit).


The parkland south of Colzium House has a bandstand platform and a 20th-century stone Monument to the Battle of Kilsyth in the form of a millstone, engraved around its edge and in the centre.


Other former estate ancillaries include a 19th century gabled lodge at the south entrance gate, former estate cottages to the north of the walled garden, and a more substantial, altered building at the north entrance gate, the site of former estate offices in the 19th century (Ordnance Survey, surveyed 1856, published 1859).

Drives & Approaches

The main entrance drive into the Colzium Lennox Estate leads into the designed landscape from the A803 (Stirling Road) to the south. It passes an entrance lodge before running north through Craigstone Wood and then curving northwest through the wooded Avenue Strip towards Colzium House.


Historic maps show this principal approach was created sometime between 1817 and 1859. It replaced a shorter, largely straight, tree-lined avenue from the main road to the house, evident on Grassom's map of 1817 and still partially evident on the 1st edition Ordnance Survey map, which also shows for the first time the present route (surveyed 1859, published 1862). The new entrance drive had a gate lodge and was longer, curving, and traversed both woods and parkland before reaching the house – a typical landscape improvement for country house estates of this period designed to maximise the experience of arrival.


From the west a shorter drive from Tak-ma-doon Road splits into two separate routes – one direct to Colzium House, and the other leading to the buildings north of the walled garden. This drive was also in place by the mid-19th century (Ordnance Survey surveyed 1859, published 1862).

Paths & Walks

The wooded Colzium Glen Walk is a scenic walking route that forms a circuit up and down the narrow, steep-sided valley of the Colzium Burn, which flows partly as a series of waterfalls. Footpaths on both sides of the glen are linked by two footbridges over the burn, one midway up the valley, and the other at the highest point of the walk. The viewing shelter known as Granny's Mutch (see architectural features), is on the lower, west side of the valley overlooking an area of waterfalls. This walk is shown on the 1st edition Ordnance Survey map and was likely established during the development of the designed landscape in the late 18th and first half of the 19th centuries (Ordnance Survey, surveyed 1859, published 1862). A pet cemetery (no longer in use, 2020), is located within woodland on the lower east bank of the glen. There are some older memorials, but the majority are late 20th–early 21st century in date.


Another historic path in the designed landscape follows the Colzium Lade in the south of the designed landscape and is lined by beech trees. While the lade has its origins in the engineering works for the Forth and Clyde canal in the 1770s (see architectural features), its subsequent ornamentation with a path, trees and footbridges (matching those on the Glen Walk), ensured this landscape feature fitted in well with the Colzium pleasure grounds as a whole in the 19th century (Ordnance Survey, surveyed 1856, published 1859, revised 1896, published 1898).


Informal paths from the Colzium pond also lead through Craigstone Wood and the arboretum.


A wide area of open lawn slopes southwards from Colzium House and forms a secluded area of public amenity parkland in the centre of the designed landscape. Bordered by woodland and mature exotic specimen trees, it contains small clumps of trees, a bandstand platform and a 20th century monument to the 1645 Battle of Kilsyth. Two trees are recorded as North Lanarkshire champions for their height and girth – a Brewer's weeping spruce (Picea breweriana) and a golden Scots pine (Pinus Antarctica 'Aurea') (recorded 2004, These open grounds form part of the setting of the house and a vantage point for views towards the house and terraced garden grounds, and across the canopies of adjoining woodland areas.


This lawn, together with neighbouring, smaller plots of open ground and play areas, was once part of a more expansive parkland landscape in the 19th century that extended all around the southern slopes of the designed landscape to the south, east and west of Colzium House. The planting of this parkland took place during the later 18th and earlier 19th centuries with many parkland trees distributed as scattered individuals to the north of Colzium Lade and a few large woodland roundels to the north and south of the lade (Ordnance Survey surveyed 1859, published 1862; 1898). By the start of the 20th century, the coverage of parkland trees began to diminish, and the open ground west of Colzium House was replaced with woodland planting (Ordnance Survey, revised 1913, published 1918), giving rise to the current pattern of open and wooded grounds.


The Colzium Lennox estate has substantial areas of long-established, broadleaved woodland which contribute to the setting of the house and other landscape components. They include mature woodland on the slopes of Colzium Glen, mixed planting to the west and southwest of Colzium House and the roughly rectangular Craigstone Wood (see under 'Arboretum'). There are also perimeter woodland strips around some fields and former parklands, a belt of trees along Colzium Lade, and the linear 'Avenue Strip' on the upper part of the main entrance drive. The canopy of these woods is visible from various locations in and around the designed landscape, including from the Tak-me-Doon road and from the south, contributing to the scenic qualities of the local landscape.


The structure of this woodland was mainly created during the later 18th century, with Grassom's 1817 map giving an early indication of the extent and pattern of tree-cover across the designed landscape. Comparison between the first and revised editions of Ordnance Survey maps shows a general expansion of woodland by the end of the 19th century with some former parkland planted over, and the creation of 'Avenue Strip' (published 1859; 1898).


Water Features

There is a large artificial pond in the southern part of the designed landscape at the northwest corner of Craigstone Wood. It was created from an earlier, square-plan curling pond on this site. Historic maps show that the curling pond was dug sometime between 1856 and 1896 – a timeframe that corresponds with the height of curling's popularity in Scotland (Ordnance Survey, survey 1856, published 1858, revised 1896). The pond acquired its current, more naturalistic outline during the later 20th century.

Walled Gardens

North of Colzium House, the walled garden enclosure contains a significant later 20th century garden of winding paths and beds with an outstanding labelled horticultural collection. The layout was designed by gardener James K. Brown from 1968 with new planting continuing into the 1990s. The garden is known in horticultural circles (information courtesy of Edinburgh and Glasgow Botanic Gardens; Cox 2014).


The garden has a Japanese feel and one of the best dwarf conifer collections in Scotland. The conifers are interplanted with dwarf rhododendons, with an overstorey of Japanese maples and golden-leaved Catalpa. There are also heathers, pines from China, and a large snowdrop collection currently numbering around 115–120 varieties (Cox 2014; information courtesy of gardener at Colzium 2019). An Eucommia Ulmoides (native to China and also known as a Gutta-percha) is recorded on the Tree Register as the tallest specimen in Scotland (


The rectangular-plan walled garden was first built in the 1780s–90s as an ancillary to Colzium House and was laid out in quadrants with perimeter and crossed-paths in the 19th century (Ordnance Survey surveyed 1856, published 1859). The revised Ordnance Survey map shows an extended glasshouse on the south-facing wall and central sundial (revised 1896, published 1898). In the 20th century, the garden was run for a time as a market garden before its acquisition and redesign by the local authority in 1967–68. 


The mixed plantation of Craigstone Wood in the south of the designed landscape contains some mature exotic specimen trees that relate to an earlier arboretum planted on this site. Trees recorded on the Tree Register in 2004 include three Antarctic beech (Nothofagus Antarctica), one of which is a Scottish champion for its height and girth, an oriental sweet gum (Liquidambar orientalis) noted as 'remarkable', and a golden beech (Fagus sylvatica 'Zlatia') which is the county champion for North Lanarkshire for girth and height ( 


It is likely that the arboretum was begun during the second half of the 19th century, perhaps alongside the development of this part of the designed landscape with the excavation of the curling pond and the extension of woodland (Ordnance Survey, surveyed 1896, revised 1898).



Historic Environment Scotland reference number CANMORE ID 45908 [accessed on 24/08/2020].

Maps and archives

Pont, T., 1583–96, The East Central Lowlands (Stirling, Falkirk & Kilsyth) – Pont 32,

Roy, W. 1747-55, Roy Military Survey of Scotland,

Grassom, J, 1817, To the noblemen and gentlemen of the County of Stirling this map from actual survey is ... / dedicated by ... John Grassom,

Ordnance Survey: Stirlingshire XXIX.5 (Kilsyth), Survey date: 1856 Publication date: 1859

Ordnance Survey: Stirlingshire XXIX.9 (Kilsyth), Survey date: 1856 Publication date: 1862

Ordnance Survey: Stirlingshire XXIX.5 (Kilsyth), Publication date: 1898 Revised: 1896

Ordnance Survey: Stirlingshire XXVIII.8 (Kilsyth), Publication date: 1918 Revised: 1913, Levelled 1915

Falkirk Herald, 25 May 1865; 20 August 1868,

National Records of Scotland, 1712–1734 Exchequer Records: Forfeited Estates Papers 1715: Particular Estates: Kilsyth, catalogue entry for reference E640 (documents not viewed)

Ordnance Survey Name Book, Stirlingshire Volume 16, OD1/32/16/85

The Scotsman, 18 October 1919, 11 May 1937,

Printed sources

Buxbaum, T. 1989, Scottish Garden Buildings: From food to folly, Edinburgh: Mainstream

Chancey, M. 2003, PhD Thesis - In the Company's Secret Service: Neil Benjamin Edmonstone and the First Indian Imperialists, 1780-1820

Cox, K. 2014, Scotland for Gardeners: The Guide to Scottish Gardens, Nurseries and Garden Centres, Edinburgh: Birlinn Limited

Dennison, E. P.; Ewart, G.; Gallagher, D. and L. Stewart 2006, Historic Kilsyth: Archaeology and Development Edinburgh: Historic Scotland

Gordon, J. ed. 1845, The New Statistical Account of Scotland / by the ministers of the respective parishes, under the superintendence of a committee of the Society for the Benefit of the Sons and Daughters of the Clergy. Kilsyth, Stirling, Vol. 8, Edinburgh: Blackwoods and Sons The Statistical Accounts of Scotland online service:

Sinclair, Sir John 1796, The Statistical Account of Scotland, Kilsyth, Stirling, Vol. 18, Edinburgh: William Creech. The Statistical Accounts of Scotland online service:

Online sources

Inventory Battlefield: Battle of Kilsyth 1645 [accessed 24/08/2020]

Kilsyth Community Council [accessed 24/08/2020]

Local Development Plan, published 2012: North Lanarkshire Council [accessed 24/08/2020]

The History of Parliament: Edmonstone, Sir Archibald (1707–1807), [accessed 24/08/2020]

The Tree Register [accessed 24/08/2020]

About the Inventory of Gardens and Designed Landscapes

Historic Environment Scotland is responsible for designating sites and places at the national level. These designations are Scheduled monuments, Listed buildings, Inventory of gardens and designed landscapes and Inventory of historic battlefields.

We make recommendations to the Scottish Government about historic marine protected areas, and the Scottish Ministers decide whether to designate.

The inventory is a list of Scotland's most important gardens and designed landscapes. We maintain the inventory under the terms of the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979.

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Path along Colzium Lade
 Walled garden, central path lined with shrubs and trees, white sky
Twentieth century monument to 1645 Battle of Kilsyth in grounds to south of Colzium House. Lawn and trees to background, white sky
Colzium House, south-facing elevation viewed from southeast, with trees to left and background, white sky

Printed: 22/05/2024 19:47