Inventory Garden & Designed Landscape

CRAIGIEHALLGDL00113

Status: Designated

Documents

Where documents include maps, the use of this data is subject to terms and conditions (https://portal.historicenvironment.scot/termsandconditions).

Summary

Date Added
01/07/1987
Supplementary Information Updated
09/10/2019
Local Authority
Edinburgh
Parish
Dalmeny
NGR
NT 16971 75567
Coordinates
316971, 675567

A forerunner of the ambitious scheme at Hopetoun, Craigiehall is of outstanding historic interest for the survival of documents that chart the design and execution of the house and its formal landscape by Sir William Bruce and his circle of professional contacts. The house and associated structures contribute outstanding architectural interest, and while not intact, the River Almond pleasure walk is an early example of the mid-18th century fashion for wilder landscape. The overall design of parks, woodland belts and avenues contributes scenic interest to the wider area, maintaining rural designed landscape character at the urban edges of Edinburgh.

Inventory record revised in 2019.

Type of Site

Classical-style country house and formal landscape with mid-18th century riverside pleasure walk and 20th century military headquarters.

Main Phases of Landscape Development

1694-1708, 1756-60, 1950s-75

Artistic Interest

Level of interest
High
  • The formal landscape at Craigiehall is a representative example of the work of Sir William Bruce, a key figure in introducing the baroque formal landscape to Scotland in the late 17th century.
  • Historic accounts of the late 18th and 19th century praise the qualities of the riverside pleasure walk.

Historical

Level of interest
Outstanding
  • Accounts and documents that chart the design and execution of Craigiehall House and its grounds from the 1690s are of outstanding interest for understanding who was involved and when, and for anticipating Bruce's larger and more complex scheme at Hopetoun, to the west (GDL00212). 
  • The partially surviving classical-style pleasure walk along the River Almond is part of a wider emerging trend for riverside walks with ornamental architecture, reflecting the new landscape fashion for wilder landscapes among Scotland's estate owners in the mid-18th century.

Horticultural

Level of interest
Little
  • Veteran and specimen parkland and avenue trees contribute interest in this category

Architectural

Level of interest
Outstanding
  • The designed landscape of parks, woodlands and formal entrance avenues provides a setting for Craigiehall House, recognised for its special architectural interest as an outstanding example of a small yet innovative classical-style country house.
  • Estate ancillaries and ornamental architecture of the 17th-19th centuries, including the stables, dovecot, sundials, grotto bridge, temple and grotto contribute further interest.
  • The Anti-Aircraft Operations Room built as part of the Scottish Command Headquarters at Craigiehall is the best surviving example of its type in Scotland.

Archaeological

Level of interest
Some
  • There was an earlier tower house and garden grounds at Craigiehall. As with many historic estate landscapes there is research potential for archaeological evidence to contribute to our understanding of the development and history of Craigiehall.
  • Evidence for prehistoric activity in this landscape includes the cropmark of a possible round barrow (a prehistoric funerary site) in the northwest part of the designed landscape (Canmore ID 144780), and the mapped location of a former standing stone known as the Kings Stane (Ordnance Survey 1856; Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments and Constructions of Scotland 1929: 208).

Scenic

Level of interest
High
  • Craigiehall is one of several designed estate landscapes at the western periphery of Edinburgh. While the military headquarters has affected its integrity as a late 17th-18th century landscape to a certain extent, the design structure remains evident. The surviving open parks, tree-lined avenues, country house and shelter-belts contribute to the identity of the wider landscape, maintaining rural, designed estate character and offering scenic contrast with neighbouring residential areas and urban fringe infrastructure.

Nature Conservation

Level of interest
Some
  • The corridor of the River Almond is recognised as a Special Landscape Area and Local Nature Conservation Site (Edinburgh Local Development Plan 2016).
  • The river and its margins, woodland cover, parkland, and mature and veteran trees present a variety of habitats likely of benefit to wildlife at the western periphery of Edinburgh.

Location and Setting

Craigiehall designed landscape is in an area of lowland plain to the west of Edinburgh, just beyond the urban edges of the city, and bordered to the south by the River Almond. This is a smoothly rolling, large-scale landscape in which neighbouring historic country house estates (Craigiehall, Cammo and Dalmeny) contribute to a mainly rural landscape of woodlands, parks, fields, shelterbelts and estate buildings.

Substantial 20th century urban fringe developments are evident in this landscape. The A90 dual carriageway borders the eastern edge of the Craigiehall policies, while the military headquarters at Craigiehall includes housing and other infrastructure. The designed landscape is situated directly below the flightpath towards Edinburgh Airport, less than 2km to the southwest.  

Lennie Hill, to the south of the River Almond, is the highest part of the designed landscape, and the location of the mid-18th century Craigiehall Temple (now part of a private house). Panoramic landscape views from here extend north over the Craigiehall policies and beyond (images from online sales particulars, www.espc.com). Due to its elevated position, Craigiehall Temple can also be seen from other parts of the designed landscape, including the main (east) entrance avenue.

Other panoramic views of the designed landscape can be seen from the slopes of Craigie Hill to the north (outside of the inventory boundary). From here, the house, tree-lined avenues, parks, woods, and Craigiehall Temple are visible. While the buildings and infrastructure of the military headquarters are also visible, the structure of the historic formal landscape remains evident in these views, and its components (avenues, woodland canopy, and parkland) contribute to the scenic quality of the wider landscape.

The corridor of the River Almond is wooded and deeply incised in places, creating an enclosed and secluded landscape distinct to other parts of Craigiehall. The section around the grotto bath house and grotto bridge has rocky outcrops and fast-moving water, creating to a gorge-like setting for a riverside path (see under paths and walks).

The inventory designed landscape is bounded to the north by Burnshot Road, to the east by the A90, and to the northwest by a wooded shelterbelt. The southern edge of the woods along the River Almond form the south and southwestern boundary, except for Lennie Hill, where the boundary extends to include Craigiehall Temple and the grounds around it, up to Cammo Road. The inventory boundary encloses an area of 127 hectares.

Site History

Craigiehall has earlier origins as part of a medieval and post-medieval estate. The lands were associated with the De Craigie family from the 12th to 14th centuries, and then the Stewarts. In 1643, Craigiehall was purchased by John Fairholme, merchant and Treasurer to the City of Edinburgh.

An earlier tower house on or close to the site of the present Craigiehall House is marked on maps of the 17th century. Labelled 'Kragy Hal' on Pont's map of the earlier 1600s, and 'Craighal' on Adair's map of circa 1682, it had garden grounds and ancillaries, of which only a doocot (dated 1672), and obelisk sundial survive. An 'old orchard' was also removed as part of the formal landscape design project at the start of the 18th century (Lowrey 1989: 3).

Preparations for a new house and landscape began in the 1690s following the marriage some years earlier of Sophia Fairholme of Craigiehall to William Johnstone, 2nd Earl of Annandale and (later) 1st Marquess of Annandale (1664-1721). They approached the best architects of the day, looking to create a more comfortable and fashionable residence for their Edinburgh base. In 1694, they settled on plans by their friend and distant cousin, Sir William Bruce (c.1625-1710), although elements of a rival design by John Smith were incorporated into the final build (Lowrey 1989).

William Bruce is known for his pioneering role in forging a new classical style of country house architecture in Scotland and introducing the baroque, formal landscape. As a landowner, politician and architect with wealthy patrons, he built and remodelled a number of houses from the 1660s, including his own at Balcaskie in Fife (GDL00037), and Kinross House by Loch Leven (GDL00247). In these schemes, Bruce treated the house and grounds as a single concept, setting the buildings within symmetrical garden grounds organised around a strong, single axis that terminated on a more distant landmark. While still engaged with Craigiehall, he began plans for a larger and more complex scheme at Hopetoun House (GDL00212), creating one of the most outstanding examples of early 18th century landscape design in Scotland.

By the mid-1690s, however, Bruce had fallen from political favour and was periodically detained under house arrest or in prison (Lowrey 2006). At Craigiehall, this meant he relied upon a circle of trusted contacts to fulfil the brief. Surviving correspondence and accounts provide a snapshot of who was involved and how the work progressed, anticipating the connections and ideas that shaped the ambitious Hopetoun landscape (Lowrey 1989).

In 1694, the surveyor, John Adair was called to Craigiehall to make a 'verie exacte map of the ground' (quoted in Lowrey 1989: 3). In the years that followed, Bruce involved architect-builders and draughtsmen, Alexander McGill, Alexander Edward, and Tobias Bachop, and the prominent landowner-politician and designer, John Erskine, 6th Earl of Mar (Lowrey 1989: 3). By 1703, Craigiehall House was complete, while work on the garden courts continued until 1708. Roy's Military Survey of 1747-55 shows the scheme in its entirety, with straight, tree-lined entrance avenues from the east and north and a pair of formal walled garden courts symmetrically arranged in front of the house, all surrounded by regular parks and perimeter planting (Roy 1747-55).

The next main phase of landscape development took place in the 1750s, when the owner, Charles Hope-Weir (1710-1791), fresh from his Grand Tour, exploited the dramatic and picturesque qualities of the River Almond to create a classical-style pleasure walk. This was very much in keeping with new trends for working with 'wilder' landscapes (see under paths and walks).  

Charles Hope-Weir (born Charles Hope) had inherited the estate in around 1741. He was the well-connected grandson of Sophia Fairholme and William Johnstone and the son and brother of the Earls of Hopetoun. Encouraged by family members and inspired by his uncle's long travels in Italy (James Johnstone, the 2nd Marquess), Hope-Weir visited southern France and Italy from 1754-56, accompanied in part by the architect, Robert Adam (1728-1792).

Once back home Hope-Weir gave form to his classical learning, embarking immediately on a programme of works to plant trees and erect classical-style statues and architecture (of which the Grotto Bridge and Grotto Bath House survive). To the south, he purchased the lands of Lennie to form a deer park, in the centre of which his Craigiehall Temple (built 1759) gave a 'noble prospect' of the estate and housed his collection of Italian art (Innes 1982: 7). During this time, Hope-Weir also arranged for the removal or relocation of some of the ornamental features of his grandparents' formal garden courts around the house (see under walled garden).

With the structure of the designed landscape in place by later 18th century, the succeeding Hope-Weirs made little further major change, concentrating instead on extensions and improvements. Craigiehall House itself was substantially altered with additions in the 1830s and in 1853. The southernmost of the formal garden courts was also demolished and removed by this period (Ordnance Survey 1856). A small gasworks was built near Cramond Bridge for lighting purposes, and there was a major rebuild of the stables in around 1860.

Craigiehall became known as a "residence laid out with much art and taste" (Brewster 1832: 677), celebrated for the scenic qualities of its grounds (Wood 1794, Gordon 1845). The first and second edition Ordnance Survey maps depict a mature landscape of parks and shelterbelts, with most elements of Bruce's formal scheme surviving, and the later pleasure walk along the River Almond clearly shown (1856; 1895). Other mapped features reveal the typical spaces for 19th century leisure pursuits (a bowling green and summerhouse to the south of the house, footpaths and stepping stones over the Almond), and horticultural production in the walled garden (paths, rectangular plots, orchards and glasshouses) (Ordnance Survey 1856; 1895)

As with many country house estates in Scotland, the impact of two World Wars broke the tradition of Craigiehall as landowner's residence. In 1916, the Hope-Weirs left Craigiehall, having sold the estate to neighbouring landowner and former prime minister, the 5th Earl of Rosebery. Rosebery had purchased the estate for his second son, the Rt. Hon Neil James Archibald Primrose. Following his son's death in action just one year later, he leased out the house and policies. Craigiehall was rented first by textile merchant, James Morton in the 1920s, and then by Ernest Thomson of Edinburgh from 1933, who opened the house as the Riverside Hotel and Country Club, complete with putting greens and 9-hole golf course.

In 1939, The War Office requisitioned Craigiehall House and policies for use during the Second World War, before negotiating its purchase in 1951 for long term use as a military headquarters. This marked the start of a major period of adaptation of the house and its grounds during the 1950s and 1960s including the building of substantial residential, social and military facilities.

In the 1960s, the East Lodge was removed during works to improve the A90 road. In the 1970s the British Airports Authority required the removal of the second storey of the Craigiehall Temple together with an oak avenue that linked Craigiehall Bridge and the Temple, as both were thought to be a danger to planes approaching Edinburgh Airport.

The integrity of the designed landscape has been affected to a certain extent by the loss of these elements, together with the introduction of buildings and other infrastructure connected with the military headquarters. However, at the time of this update (2019), the landscape still retains most of its significant features, areas of deliberately contrived character and important views to, from and within the site. It retains sufficient integrity to merit inclusion on the inventory.

Landscape Components

Architectural Features

Craigiehall is a 2 storey, rectangular plan country house, designed by William Bruce in 1695-99, and extended by William Burn in 1830 and David Bryce in 1856. It was built for the 1st Marquess of Annandale to replace an earlier tower house and is an important example of a small, yet innovative early classical house, of which relatively few remain.

Built survivors of the earlier landscape in this area are restricted to the 1672 lectern-type doocot northwest of the house, and the restored and re-erected 17th century red sandstone obelisk sundial to the east. West of the house, there is another sundial of the horizontal type which dates to 1703-1714.

The large, roughly square walled garden is one of two garden enclosures once arranged symmetrically in front of Craigiehall House in the 18th century. Only this (northernmost) enclosure survives. Completed in 1708, the architect Alexander McGill and John Erskine, the Earl of Mar were involved in its design and execution (Lowry 1989). It has high, coped, random rubble and brick walls, with a red brick inner face to the north wall, and a segmental arched opening to the north wall. Two openings on the east wall date to the 20th century. Between Craigiehall House and the walled garden, two rectangular sandstone gatepiers are relocated from an early 18th century ornamental gateway. 

North of the walled garden and on the north drive, a U-plan stable court dates mainly to the 1860s but incorporates some earlier fabric. It comprises a 2 storey and attic, 5 bay range with central gabled bay and attic-level clock, flanked by lower, 3 bay wings. A screen wall partly encloses the courtyard and has central square-plan gatepiers dated 1749, which were likely moved to this position from elsewhere.

The group of architectural features along the River Almond were built following Charles Hope-Weir's return from his Grand Tour in 1756. Spanning the gorge, the single-arched, rustic grotto bridge was built in 1757 to designs by either John or James Adam. Upstream, the grotto, of similar date, is a partially-surviving, 2 storey circular classical folly with bath house in the lower section, used in the earlier 20th century to house a water turbine (Innes 1982: 10). Across the River Almond, on Lennie Hill, Craigiehall Temple is a circular-plan drum temple built 1759. It is now part of a private house. The front of the temple has an early 18th century Doric portico and armorial panel, relocated from the garden courts of the 1708 scheme. The temple was reduced in height in 1975 due to its location on the flight path to Edinburgh Airport. A couple of large, squared, dressed stones on the bank of the River Almond, appear to be a toppled statue pedestal, and likely relate to the embellishment of this riverside walk in the 1750s.

The designed landscape also contains many military buildings built as part of the Scottish Command Headquarters in the 1950s and 60s. Of these, the Anti-Aircraft Operations Room, built 1953-4 to the northeast of the stables is the best surviving example of its type in Scotland. Elements such as the Warrant Officers' and Sergeants Mess, car parking, and barracks are located either side of the north entrance drive in the grounds to the north of Craigiehall House and walled garden. In the parklands to the south Craigiehall House, there are two separate rows of Married Officers' accommodation, completed in the early 1950s - Primrose Drive and Riverside Road. A further row of Married Officers' Houses is located along the northern boundary of the designed landscape at Hillside Road.

Drives & Approaches

Two straight, tree-lined avenues, or drives lead from the east and from the north towards Craigiehall House. They were part of the early 18th century landscape established for Willliam Johnstone and Sophia Fairholme by William Bruce and are visible on Roy's Military Survey of 1747-55. While buildings and infrastructure associated with the military headquarters have changed the landscape around the drives, particularly in the areas close to Craigiehall House, they remain strong features in the present landscape (2019) and retain their role as the main entrance routes and for channelling views to and from the core policies.

From Queensferry Road (the A90), the main east drive is lined with thick belts of trees, including specimen conifers. These give way to a pattern of cedar and yew, and an outer secondary line of oak trees. A substantial ha ha separates the drive from the parkland in some sections. Some trees are large, visible as impressive specimens from other viewpoints in the policies (2019). A former east lodge was demolished in the late 1960s as a result of road dualling works.

From Burnshot Road, the north drive is also lined by oaks. An earlier north lodge was also demolished by around the mid-1960s (Ordnance Survey Plan 1965-69).

Paths & Walks

Craigiehall's importance for the inventory is enhanced by the partial survival of a mid-18th century pleasure walk along the wooded north bank of the River Almond. It was established by Charles Hope-Weir in 1756-59 and is of interest both for its nature conservation value and for reflecting the early phases of a new fashion for landscape design in Scotland. 

From the mid-later 18th century, there was a growing appreciation of the wilder aspects of Scotland's landscapes. Landowners and landscape designers sought out 'wild glens' with cliffs, crags and waterfalls in the vicinity of their houses, and brought them into their designs through paths, drives, bridges, planting, and ornamental structures. Other riverside walks of similar date include those at Newhailes in East Lothian (GDL00296) (begun in the 1740s), Paxton House in the Scottish Borders (GDL00310), and Duff House, Aberdeenshire (GDL00148), both created in the 1760s.   

At Craigiehall, Charles Hope-Weir's programme included a grotto bath house and rustic bridge, planting and a series of classical-style statues, including a Venus di Medici on the island formed by the main river channel and a former mill lade. The romantic name 'Venus Island' for this piece of land was recorded in 1794, and again in 1845, by which date the statuary was described as lost or relocated (Wood 1794: 67; Gordon 1845: 94) (Ordnance Survey maps, however, record the location of a statue and monument into the 20th century, Ordnance Survey 1909) while two blocks of dressed stone on the river bank likely derive from a toppled pedestal of this era).

In the present landscape, the riverside path follows much of this historic route, and links up with the popular River Almond Walkway from Cramond, to the east (2019). It is designated as a Special Landscape Area and Local Nature Conservation Site recognition of its importance as a wildlife corridor (Edinburgh Local Development Plan 2016). Although the statuary no longer exists, and the character of the planting has changed, the walk retains a single line of evenly spaced mature beech trees in some sections, while the main surviving focus continues to be the steep-sided gorge with natural rocky cascade, forming a secluded and dramatic landscape setting for the grotto bridge and grotto bath house (see under architectural features).

From the grotto bridge, the path leads up Lennie Hill through a strip of woodland where a former oak avenue was largely cut down in the 1970s following an intervention from the British Airports Authority. This path once connected with a terraced walk along the north side of Craigiehall Temple, designed to provide views of the park, and probably that cited as a fine specimen of a 'terrace walk in the ancient style' in the Edinburgh Encyclopaedia (Brewster 1832: 707)

Parkland

Parkland with individual specimen trees (mainly sycamore, lime and horse chestnut) is located south of the main (east) avenue, and to the southwest of Craigiehall House. Other open grounds (rectilinear fields with no surviving trees) extend along the north of the designed landscape, and to the immediate north of the main (east) drive. The initial improvement and enclosure of these grounds probably took place from the early 18th century as part of the wider landscape and building design work of this period.

Comparison between historic maps and the present arrangement of these grounds shows little change in terms of extent and boundaries from the mid-18th century to the present day (2019), (Roy 1747-55; Ordnance Survey 1856 and 1895). The Ordnance Survey maps indicate that the southern parks were always more densely planted with individual trees, while one of the northern parks (to the immediate east of the north drive) once contained a former standing stone known as the Kings Stane.

The main alteration to the character of the parklands has been the construction of buildings and infrastructure related to the military headquarters in the 1950s-60s, including the rows of houses along Primrose Drive and Riverside Road, which curves around the south and eastern edge of the southern park.

The parks remain important in views from within and around the designed landscape. These range from panoramic views across the policies, such as from Craigie Hill to the north, to more intimate views, particularly across the southern parks, where the combination of open ground, mature parkland trees and perimeter planting contributes to the landscape setting of Craigiehall House.

Woodland

Woodland at Craigiehall is confined to the River Almond valley and the belts of trees bordering the parks, fields, and entrance avenues. The structure of this planting dates largely from the early-mid 18th century landscape designs, while the current stock of trees derives from multiple phases of planting and regeneration, mainly from the 19th-20th centuries. Although not extensive in area, these woodland belts help define the overall structure of the designed landscape, add variety and interest to landscape views, and contribute nature conservation value.

Along the River Almond, there are veteran beech trees lining the riverside walk, and some surviving yew in the area of the grotto, reflecting a time when the character of planting in this area was more open and ornamental (Ordnance Survey 1856; 1895). The remainder is largely mixed deciduous woodland, with sycamore and beech of 19th-20th century origins, together with naturally regenerating species. This woodland is part of a the Lower Almond Special Landscape Area and a Local Nature Conservation Site (Edinburgh Local Development Plan 2016).

Elsewhere, the formal lines of trees along the entrance avenues include some older veterans (see under drives and approaches). A spur of woodland immediately south of the main (east) drive surrounds a narrow lake. To the west of the house, the Collingwood Plantation is named after Lieutenant General Sir George Collingwood, who arranged for a small wood to be planted in 1958 on the site where eight wartime Nissen huts had been removed (Innes 1982: 14).

The Gardens

Open lawns extend to the front (east) and rear (west) of Craigiehall House, bordered in part with areas of informally planted mixed ornamental trees. The lawn to the front has two central features that align with the axis of the long, east avenue – the modern Craigiehall Stane (a monument in the form of a boulder to celebrate the army in Scotland 1669-2000), and beyond, some 100 metres from the house, the relocated 17th century obelisk sundial.  

Walled Gardens

Located northeast of the house, the walled garden is now open lawn with asphalt-type surfacing around part of its perimeter (2019). It was built in 1701-1708 as one of two symmetrical outer garden courts in a formal landscape scheme by Sir William Bruce, with Alexander McGill as the architect, and John Erskine, 6th Earl of Mar as designer (Stewart 2019: 89) (see under architectural features). A large Scottish Command Headquarters Office Block (Annandale Block), erected in the garden in 1966 was demolished in the early 21st century.

In the earlier 18th century, these walled garden spaces were intended for leisure and adorned with ornaments. The completed scheme had the two enclosures forming outer courts, accessed from an inner court, quartered around four statues supplied by the Earl of Mar, and with summer seats against the court walls (Lowrey 1989: 5). Mar also designed an ornamental gate to divide the inner and outer courts, which survived in a relocated position into the early 20th century (Lowrey 1989: 8). A document showing the garden grounds as leased to a local gardener in 1716 also refers to a parterre flower garden and bowling green (Innes 1982: 36).

Roy's Military Survey of 1747-55 depicts both enclosures, with the marking on the map suggesting a wilderness style of planting. Alterations took place shortly after this date, as part of Charles Hope-Weir's phase of work in the 1750s, with ornamental structures relocated, including an armorial panel repositioned on the portico of Charles Hope-Weir's 1759 Temple on Lennie Hill.

By the mid-19th century, the southern walled enclosure had been demolished, and the southwest corner of the present (northern) walled garden had been modified, creating the current plan-form (Ordnance Survey 1856). By this period, the walled garden was used for horticultural production, with orchards, glasshouses and regular plots accessed by paths (ibid).

References

Bibliography

Historic Environment Scotland http://www.canmore.org.uk CANMORE ID 50408 [accessed 2019]

Maps and archives

Pont, T. (1630s) A new description of the shyres Lothian and Linlitquo https://maps.nls.uk/

Adair, J (circa 1682), Map of Midlothian, https://maps.nls.uk/

Roy, W (1747-55) Roy's Military Survey of Scotland, https://maps.nls.uk/

Ordnance Survey: Linlithgowshire VII.6 (with inset VII.6) (Dalmeny) Survey date: 1854 Publication date: 1856

Ordnance Survey: Linlithgowshire, Sheet 7 (includes: Currie; Dalmeny; Edinburgh; Kirkliston; Ratho) Survey date: 1854-5 Publication date: 1856

Ordnance Survey: Edinburghshire II.4 (Dalmeny; Edinburgh) Publication date: 1895 Revised: 1893

Ordnance Survey: Edinburghshire Sheet II.NE (includes: Dalmeny; Edinburgh; Kirkliston) Publication date: 1909 Date revised: 1905

Ordnance Survey Plan 1965-69

Printed sources

Brewster, W (1832), The Edinburgh Encyclopaedia: The First American Edition, Joseph and Edward Parker

City of Edinburgh Council (2001) Cramond Conservation Area Character Appraisal, www.edinburgh.gov.uk [accessed 2019]

Innes, C B. (1982) Craigiehall: the story of a fine Scots country house, (unpublished typescript).

Gordon, J. (ed). (1845) The New Statistical Account of Scotland / by the ministers of the respective parishes, under the superintendence of a committee of the Society for the Benefit of the Sons and Daughters of the Clergy. Dalmeny, Linlithgow, Vol. 2, Edinburgh: Blackwoods and Sons, University of Edinburgh, University of Glasgow. (1999) The Statistical Accounts of Scotland online service: https://stataccscot.edina.ac.uk:443/link/nsa-vol2-p92-parish-linlithgow-dalmeny

Lowrey, J. (2006) Bruce, Sir William, first baronet (c. 1625–1710), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, www.oxforddnb.com [accessed 2019]

Lowrey, J. (1989) 'Sir William Bruce and his circle at Craigiehall 1694-1708', in Frew, J and Jones, D., Aspects of Scottish Classicism. The House and Its Formal Setting 1690-1750. St Andrews.

MacKechnie, A. (2002) 'Sir William Bruce: 'the chief introducer of Architecture in this country'', Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 132, 499–519

Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments and Constructions of Scotland (1929), Tenth report with inventory of monuments and constructions in the counties of Midlothian and West Lothian. Her Majesty's Stationery Office: Edinburgh

Stewart, M. (2019) The Architectural Landscape and Constitutional Plans of the Earl of Mar 1700-32, Four Courts Press: Edinburgh

Wood, J. P. (1794) The antient [sic] and modern state of the Parish of Cramond, John Paterson: Edinburgh

Online sources

Edinburgh Local Development Plan (2016), http://www.edinburgh.gov.uk/info/20013/planning_and_building/66/edinburgh_local_development_plan [accessed 2019]

Sales Particulars, 6 Bed House - Detached for Sale in Cammo: Craigiehall Temple, 66 Cammo Road, EH12 0AR, www.espc.com [accessed 2019]

About the Inventory of Gardens and Designed Landscapes

Historic Environment Scotland is responsible for designating sites and places at the national level. These designations are Scheduled monuments, Listed buildings, Inventory of gardens and designed landscapes and Inventory of historic battlefields.

We make recommendations to the Scottish Government about historic marine protected areas, and the Scottish Ministers decide whether to designate.

The inventory is a list of Scotland's most important gardens and designed landscapes. We maintain the inventory under the terms of the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979.

We add sites of national importance to the inventory using the selection guidance published in Designation Policy and Selection Guidance (2019)

The information in the inventory record gives an indication of the national importance of the site(s). It is not a definitive account or a complete description of the site(s). The format of records has changed over time. Earlier records may be brief and some information will not have been recorded.

Enquiries about development proposals, such as those requiring planning permission, on or around inventory sites should be made to the planning authority. The planning authority is the main point of contact for all applications of this type.

Find out more about the inventory of gardens and designed landscapes and our other designations at www.historicenvironment.scot/advice-and-support. You can contact us on 0131 668 8914 or at designations@hes.scot.

Images

Main (east) avenue to Craigiehall House on a clear day, trees to left and right.
Craigiehall House, east elevation on a clear day.
View of River Almond from Grotto Bridge, looking east, rocks in river, dark trees to left and right. Clear sky.
17th century sundial at Craigiehall, on a clear day, grass and trees in background.

Printed: 17/05/2021 22:52