Scheduled Monument

Craw Stane, symbol stone and enclosure 575m E of Mains of RhynieSM69

Status: Designated

Documents

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Summary

Date Added
30/11/1923
Last Date Amended
09/01/2004
Type
Crosses and carved stones: symbol stone, Prehistoric domestic and defensive: enclosure (domestic or defensive, rather than ritual or funerary)
Local Authority
Aberdeenshire
Parish
Rhynie
NGR
NJ 49704 26358
Coordinates
349704, 826358

Description

The monument consists of a Class 1 Pictish symbol stone, known as the Craw Stane or Rynie No 1. It is situated on a S facing slope just below the crest of a hill in a pasture field which overlooks the valley of the river Bogie to the E and the site of St Luag's church to the NE. The symbol stone stands within an enclosure, now showing as a cropmark. The monument was originally scheduled in 1923 and rescheduled in 1961. On both occasions only the symbol stone and a small area around it was scheduled. However, aerial photography of the area has demonstrated the existence of an enclosure in which the symbol stone stands. The monument is being rescheduled in order to include the cropmark enclosure within the scheduled area.

The Craw Stane is a rectangular block of grey granite, measuring 0.9m in breadth and 0.4m wide and 1.85m in height set in a concrete base. Its SW face bears the incised figure of a fish and, immediately below it, a Pictish beast. The symbols are grooved, pecked and reasonably clear.

The symbol stone stands at the eastern edge of the cropmark of a roughly oval enclosure. It is formed of three concentric rings, which probably represent palisade ditches. The outer ring has a maximum diameter of 66m SW-NE. It is unclear what relationship there was between what appears to be a defended site, dating from the late 1st millennium BC to mid-1st millennium AD, and the Pictish symbol stone, which dates from around the 6th century AD. However, the location of the symbol stone within the cropmark does suggest that it is on or very near its original location, although re-erected with a concrete base.

The area to be scheduled includes the Craw Stane and the cropmark enclosure, and an area around them in which related remains are likely to survive. The area is four-sided and has maximum dimensions of 150m NE-SW and 140m transversely as marked in red on the attached map.

Statement of National Importance

The monument is of national importance as an example of an in situ Class 1 Pictish symbol stone situated within a complex enclosure, which survives as a cropmark. The site is associated with several other symbol stones; the Rhynie Man stone was ploughed up down-slope from the Craw Stane, and in total eight Pictish stones have been found in the vicinity of St Luag's Church, perhaps focused on the Craw Stane and its surrounding enclosure. The existence of the symbol stones demonstrates the significance of this site. The cropmark itself has enormous potential to improve our understanding of the context in which Pictish symbol stones were erected.

References

Bibliography

The monument is recorded by RCAHMS as NJ42NE 35 and NJ42NE 54.

References:

Aberdeen Archaeological Surveys 1979, AERIAL RECONNAISSANCE, Discovery Excav Scot, 1979, 12.

Allen and Anderson, J R and J (1903) THE EARLY CHRISTIAN MONUMENTS OF SCOTLAND: A CLASSIFIED ILLUSTRATED DESCRIPTIVE LIST OF THE MONUMENTS WITH AN ANALYSIS OF THEIR SYMBOLISM AND ORNAMENTATION, Edinburgh, Pt. 3, 182.

Jackson A 1984, THE SYMBOL STONES OF SCOTLAND: A SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGICAL RESOLUTION TO THE PROBLEM OF THE PICTS, Kirkwall.

Logan J 1829 OBSERVATIONS ON SEVERAL MONUMENTAL STONES IN THE NORTH OF SCOTLAND, Archaeologia, 22, 1829, 55.

Mack A 1997, FIELD GUIDE TO THE PICTISH SYMBOL STONES, BALGAVIES, ANGUS, 87.

RCAHMS 1994, PICTISH SYMBOL STONES: A HANDLIST 1994, Edinburgh, 10, No. Rhynie 1.

Ritchie J N G 1985, PICTISH SYMBOL STONES: A HANDLIST 1985, Edinburgh, 8.

Stuart J 1856, SCULPTURED STONES OF SCOTLAND, 1, Aberdeen, 4.

About Scheduled Monuments

Historic Environment Scotland is responsible for designating sites and places at the national level. These designations are Scheduled monuments, Listed buildings, Inventory of gardens and designed landscapes and Inventory of historic battlefields.

We make recommendations to the Scottish Government about historic marine protected areas, and the Scottish Ministers decide whether to designate.

Scheduling is the process that identifies, designates and provides statutory protection for monuments and archaeological sites of national importance as set out in the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979.

We schedule sites and monuments that are found to be of national importance using the selection guidance published in Designation Policy and Selection Guidance (2019)

Scheduled monument records provide an indication of the national importance of the scheduled monument which has been identified by the description and map. The description and map showing the scheduled area is the legal part of the scheduling. The statement of national importance and additional information provided are supplementary. These records are not definitive historical or archaeological accounts or a complete description of the monument(s).

The format of scheduled monument records has changed over time. Earlier records will usually be brief. Some information will not have been recorded and the map will not be to current standards. Even if what is described and what is mapped has changed, the monument is still scheduled.

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Find out more about scheduling and our other designations at www.historicenvironment.scot/advice-and-support. You can contact us on 0131 668 8914 or at designations@hes.scot.

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