Scheduled Monument

Kinneddar, Bishop's PalaceSM6643

Status: Designated

Documents

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Summary

Date Added
11/04/1997
Type
Ecclesiastical: belfry, Secular: castle; palace
Local Authority
Moray
Parish
Drainie
NGR
NJ 22376 69668
Coordinates
322376, 869668

Description

The monument comprises the site and remains of the palace of the Bishops of Moray at Kinneddar. Richard, Bishop of Moray (1187-1203), is known to have resided at Kineddar, and in 1280 Bishop Archibald extended or rebuilt the castle there. The foundations of the house and enclosure wall were seen by L. Shaw and R. Pococke in the eighteenth century.

In 1734 the stronghold of Kineddar still had its foundations and fortifications "so entire as to be easily traceable". The whole covered about two acres in a hexagonal shape. In the centre was the great tower, which was later used as a bell tower for the adjoining church. The tower was defended by two walls, 50 paces apart, each having a ditch in front and an earthen ramart, 8-10 ft (2.44-3.05m) high and wide behind it.

The outer wall had a square tower, projecting 6 ft (1.8m) at each angle. Directly east of the great tower were vaulted storehouses and barracks. The outer wall, containing a sallyport, was 6 ft (1.8m) thick and 16 ft (4.9m) high. The fortification was further strengthened on the east by a "morass" and two ditches, the inner 24 ft (7.3m) and the outer 12 ft (3.7m) wide; these were defended in turn by a horn-work. By 1842, the walls had been levelled and the ditches filled in.

During the levelling work large quantities of ashes, charcoal, broken urns and human bones were found, especially under the earthen ramparts.

The site of the castle was confirmed by excavation in 1936, and has been further elucidated by aerial photography and by an archaeological assessment carried out by Edinburgh University for Grampian Regional Council in 1995. The latter included excavation, resistivity survey and analysis of aerial photographs.

It shows that substantial remains of the castle survive in the field north and east of the present cemetery. They include a large hexagonal ditched enclosure associated with a stone wall, with at least one outer ditch on the east, and remains of other walled structures.

The scheduled monument comprises an area of ground lying north and east of the cemetery, bounded by, but excluding, the cemetery wall on the south and field boundaries on the west and north. It measures a maximum of 130m WNW-ESE by 95m, as shown in red on the accompanying map extract.

Statement of National Importance

The monument is of national importance because it represents the remains of the castle, or palace, of the medieval bishops of Moray, overlying (so it appears) an earlier cemetery, and has the potential, through excavation, to shed further light on medieval architecture, social history, ecclesiastical history and material culture.

Its importance is enhanced by its very close proximity to the site of the parish church and former cathedral of Kinneddar, from which a large collection of Pictish and early Christian carved stones has been recovered.

References

Bibliography

RCAHMS records the monument as NJ 26 NW 1.

Reference:

Centre for Field Archaeology, University of Edinburgh. Kineddar Archaeological Field Evaluation, Lossiemouth, Moray District: Data Structure Report (Report No. 243: Edinburgh 1995)

About Scheduled Monuments

Historic Environment Scotland is responsible for the designation of buildings, monuments, gardens and designed landscapes and historic battlefields. We also advise Scottish Ministers on the designation of historic marine protected areas.

Scheduling is the way that a monument or archaeological site of national importance is recognised by law through the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979.

We schedule sites and monuments of national importance using the criteria published in the Historic Environment Scotland Policy Statement.

The description and map showing the scheduled area is the legal part of the scheduling. The additional information in the scheduled monument record gives an indication of the national importance of the monument(s). It is not a definitive account or a complete description of the monument(s). The format of scheduled monument records has changed over time. Earlier records will usually be brief and some information will not have been recorded. Scheduled monument consent is required to carry out certain work, including repairs, to scheduled monuments. Applications for scheduled monument consent are made to us. We are happy to discuss your proposals with you before you apply and we do not charge for advice or consent. More information about consent and how to apply for it can be found on our website at www.historicenvironment.scot.

Find out more about scheduling and our other designations at www.historicenvironment.scot. You can contact us on 0131 668 8716 or at designations@hes.scot.

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Printed: 19/11/2018 15:21