Scheduled Monument

Calkin,settlements and cultivation terraces 300m N ofSM4394

Status: Designated

Documents

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Summary

Date Added
26/03/1987
Type
Prehistoric domestic and defensive: cultivation terraces; settlement (if not assigned to any more specific type), Secular: settlement, including deserted and depopulated and townships
Local Authority
Dumfries And Galloway
Parish
Westerkirk
NGR
NY 30479 88975
Coordinates
330479, 588975

Description

The monument is complex, comprising a well preserved earthwork of the Iron Age, cultivation terraces of uncertain date and a structure and field system of the pre-improvement period. The earthwork is an enclosure lying in the saddle E of Auchendona Hill, measuring 34.5m in diameter within a bank. There are traces of a counterscarp bank. The broad cultivation terraces which lie downhill to the E and W of the enclosure seem, at their nearest approach, to override the counterscarp bank, indicating perhaps that they are later.

The pre-improvement farmstead lies to the E. It comprises a rectangular buidling set along the contour measuring c.10m by 5.4m within turf-covered footings spread up to 1.8m in thickness and 0.4m in height. The building has a W extension, slightly platformed, and a ditch around its upper side. An enclosure is attached, which measures c.58m by 38m within a turf bank 1.5m across and 0.3m high. The enclosure contains traces of rig and furrow cultivation (overlying the cultivation terraces) and some lazy beds. The cultivation terraces seem to be of Iron Age to Medieval date. They cover an area of about 5 hectares.

Statement of National Importance

The monument is of national importance because of the good preservation of the field characteristics of its principal element. The Iron Age settlement is well preserved and undisturbed, with the exception of the E portion of its bank. The remains of the rectangular building of the pre-improvement period are very well preserved and show structural detail. The monument is of national importance to the themes of settlement and economy in the Iron Age, the pre-improvement period and, because of the cultivation terraces, the period in between. Taken with monuments of similar periods in the area, the monument is of national importance to the themes of Iron Age and pre-clearance landscape development and organisation. The cultivation terraces are of national importance as well preserved examples of a rare type in this area, to the theme of agricultural techniques in the early historical period.

References

Bibliography

RCAHMS record the site as NY38 NW 1.

About Scheduled Monuments

Historic Environment Scotland is responsible for the designation of buildings, monuments, gardens and designed landscapes and historic battlefields. We also advise Scottish Ministers on the designation of historic marine protected areas.

Scheduling is the way that a monument or archaeological site of national importance is recognised by law through the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979.

We schedule sites and monuments of national importance using the criteria published in the Historic Environment Scotland Policy Statement.

The description and map showing the scheduled area is the legal part of the scheduling. The additional information in the scheduled monument record gives an indication of the national importance of the monument(s). It is not a definitive account or a complete description of the monument(s). The format of scheduled monument records has changed over time. Earlier records will usually be brief and some information will not have been recorded. Scheduled monument consent is required to carry out certain work, including repairs, to scheduled monuments. Applications for scheduled monument consent are made to us. We are happy to discuss your proposals with you before you apply and we do not charge for advice or consent. More information about consent and how to apply for it can be found on our website at www.historicenvironment.scot.

Find out more about scheduling and our other designations at www.historicenvironment.scot. You can contact us on 0131 668 8716 or at designations@hes.scot.

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Printed: 18/12/2018 23:23