Scheduled Monument

Calkin,settlements and cultivation terraces 300m N ofSM4394

Status: Designated


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Date Added
Prehistoric domestic and defensive: cultivation terraces; settlement (if not assigned to any more specific type), Secular: settlement, including deserted and depopulated and townships
Local Authority
Dumfries And Galloway
NY 30479 88975
330479, 588975


The monument is complex, comprising a well preserved earthwork of the Iron Age, cultivation terraces of uncertain date and a structure and field system of the pre-improvement period. The earthwork is an enclosure lying in the saddle E of Auchendona Hill, measuring 34.5m in diameter within a bank. There are traces of a counterscarp bank. The broad cultivation terraces which lie downhill to the E and W of the enclosure seem, at their nearest approach, to override the counterscarp bank, indicating perhaps that they are later.

The pre-improvement farmstead lies to the E. It comprises a rectangular buidling set along the contour measuring c.10m by 5.4m within turf-covered footings spread up to 1.8m in thickness and 0.4m in height. The building has a W extension, slightly platformed, and a ditch around its upper side. An enclosure is attached, which measures c.58m by 38m within a turf bank 1.5m across and 0.3m high. The enclosure contains traces of rig and furrow cultivation (overlying the cultivation terraces) and some lazy beds. The cultivation terraces seem to be of Iron Age to Medieval date. They cover an area of about 5 hectares.

Statement of National Importance

The monument is of national importance because of the good preservation of the field characteristics of its principal element. The Iron Age settlement is well preserved and undisturbed, with the exception of the E portion of its bank. The remains of the rectangular building of the pre-improvement period are very well preserved and show structural detail. The monument is of national importance to the themes of settlement and economy in the Iron Age, the pre-improvement period and, because of the cultivation terraces, the period in between. Taken with monuments of similar periods in the area, the monument is of national importance to the themes of Iron Age and pre-clearance landscape development and organisation. The cultivation terraces are of national importance as well preserved examples of a rare type in this area, to the theme of agricultural techniques in the early historical period.



RCAHMS record the site as NY38 NW 1.

About Scheduled Monuments

Historic Environment Scotland is responsible for designating sites and places at the national level. These designations are Scheduled monuments, Listed buildings, Inventory of gardens and designed landscapes and Inventory of historic battlefields.

We make recommendations to the Scottish Government about historic marine protected areas, and the Scottish Ministers decide whether to designate.

Scheduling is the process that identifies, designates and provides statutory protection for monuments and archaeological sites of national importance as set out in the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979.

We schedule sites and monuments that are found to be of national importance using the selection guidance published in Designation Policy and Selection Guidance (2019)

Scheduled monument records provide an indication of the national importance of the scheduled monument which has been identified by the description and map. The description and map showing the scheduled area is the legal part of the scheduling. The statement of national importance and additional information provided are supplementary. These records are not definitive historical or archaeological accounts or a complete description of the monument(s).

The format of scheduled monument records has changed over time. Earlier records will usually be brief. Some information will not have been recorded and the map will not be to current standards. Even if what is described and what is mapped has changed, the monument is still scheduled.

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Printed: 22/05/2019 16:04