Scheduled Monument

Cnoc Chaornaidh, chambered cairn 175m NNE of StratheskieSM4045

Status: Designated

Documents

Where documents include maps, the use of this data is subject to terms and conditions (https://portal.historicenvironment.scot/termsandconditions).

Summary

Date Added
23/12/1977
Last Date Amended
23/11/2018
Type
Prehistoric ritual and funerary: chambered cairn
Local Authority
Highland
Parish
Kincardine (Highland)
NGR
NC 29898 8417
Coordinates
229898, 908417

Description

The monument comprises the remains of a chambered cairn dating to the Neolithic period, probably built and in use between around 4000BC and 2500BC. The cairn sits on a low glacial mound and is visible as a group of large edge set stones that form the internal chamber and outer kerb of the cairn. The cairn measures around 16m in diameter. It has an east-southeast facing passage approximately 1m long and an internal chamber that measures about 3.6m east-west by 2.4m north-south. The monument is located on a ridge on the west slope of Cnoc Chaornaidh, at about 180m above sea level.

The scheduled area is circular with a diameter of 30m and includes the remains described above and an area around them within which evidence relating to the monument's construction, use and abandonment is expected to survive, as shown in red on the accompanying map.

Statement of National Importance

Cultural Significance

The cultural significance of the monument has been assessed as follows:

Intrinsic Characteristics

The monument is a chambered cairn of the Orkney Cromarty group, which survives as a substantial stone-built structure. Although significant stone robbing has taken place, this has not disturbed the overall plan of the monument. There is visible evidence of a substantial kerb, east-southeast facing passage, and internal chamber. There is good potential for the survival of archaeological remains, including human burials, artefacts and environmental remains such as pollen and charcoal, within, beneath and around the upstanding structure of the cairn. The archaeological deposits have the potential to provide information about the date of the monument, ritual and funerary practices, and the structure of Neolithic society. Any artefacts and environmental material would enhance understanding of contemporary economy, land-use and environment.

Dating evidence from chambered cairns elsewhere demonstrates that they were constructed and in use between around 4000BC and 2500 BC. They were used for communal burial and ritual, and excavations often reveal evidence of complex development sequences. Therefore the cairn may have been in use for a long period of time. Scientific study of the cairn's form and construction techniques compared with other chambered cairns would enhance our understanding of the development sequence of this site and of chambered cairns in general.

Contextual Characteristics

Chambered cairns are found throughout Scotland, with a concentration in the north and west. The example at Cnoc Chaornaidh is important as an upstanding and well-preserved example. It is part of a wider group of chambered cairns in the Glen Oykel area that are located around Cnoc Chaornaidh, including Cnoc Chaornaidh, chambered cairn 560m WSW of (SM4023; Canmore ID 4738), Cnoc Chaornaidh, chambered cairn 570m SW of (SM4022; Canmore ID 4739), Allt Eileag, chambered cairn 790m SE of Cnoc Chaornaidh (SM4046; Canmore ID 4740) and Garbh Ath Chaoruinn, chambered cairn 1km ENE of Cnoc Chaornaidh (SM13706; Canmore ID 4741). The proximity of these burial monuments can give important insights into the Neolithic landscape and add to our understanding of social organisation, land division and land-use. The monument has the potential to enhance our understanding of the nature and development of Neolithic monumentality and burial, the nature of belief systems, ceremonial and burial practices.

Chambered cairns are found in a variety of locations. Some are placed in conspicuous locations within the landscape, such as on the summits of hills or on the shoulders of hills, perhaps to be seen on a skyline or otherwise in profile. Others are found in less conspicuous locations, for example on valley floors. Relationships to routeways and/or other ritual sites, locations near to good upland pasture and views over specific areas of land may also have had significance. The chambered cairn at Cnoc Chaornaidh is positioned on a ridge on the west slope of Cnoc Chaornaidh. It has been built on a low glacial mound, which will have enhanced the height of the cairn and increased its prominence. The cairn has extensive views to the south and southeast and overlooks the north bank of the Allt Eileag, a tributary of the River Oykel.

Associative Characteristics

There are no known associative characteristics that contribute to this site's national importance.

Statement of National Importance

This monument is of national importance because it makes a significant addition to our understanding of the design and construction of burial monuments, the nature of burial and ritual practices and their significance in Neolithic society. The chambered cairn is an impressive monument which retains its field characteristics and can be compared with other chambered cairns that survive in the vicinity. As such it can significantly enhance our understanding of Neolithic society and economy, as well as the nature of belief systems, burial and ceremonial practices. It would have been an important component of the wider prehistoric landscape of settlement, agriculture and ritual and would have been a prominent part of the prehistoric landscape. Chambered cairns are one of our main sources of information for the Neolithic in Scotland and so are an important element in our understanding of the nature of Scotland's prehistoric society and landscape. The loss of the monument would diminish our ability to appreciate and understand the meaning and importance of death and burial, and the placing of cairns within the landscape in the Neolithic period in northern Scotland and further afield.

References

Bibliography

Historic Environment Scotland http://www.canmore.org.uk reference number CANMORE ID 4606 (accessed on 27/08/2018).

Highland Historic Environment Record Reference: MHG7380 (accessed on 27/08/2018).

Henshall, A S. (1963) The chambered tombs of Scotland, vol. 1. Edinburgh. p. 344.

Henshall, A.S. and Ritchie, J.N.G. (1995) The chambered cairns of Sutherland, Edinburgh, p142-143.

Mercer, R J. (1980a) Archaeological field survey in northern Scotland, 1976-1979, University of Edinburgh, Department of Archaeology, Occasional Paper No. 4. Edinburgh. p. 152.

HER/SMR Reference

  • MHG7380

About Scheduled Monuments

Historic Environment Scotland is responsible for designating sites and places at the national level. These designations are Scheduled monuments, Listed buildings, Inventory of gardens and designed landscapes and Inventory of historic battlefields.

We make recommendations to the Scottish Government about historic marine protected areas, and the Scottish Ministers decide whether to designate.

Scheduling is the process that identifies, designates and provides statutory protection for monuments and archaeological sites of national importance as set out in the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979.

We schedule sites and monuments that are found to be of national importance using the selection guidance published in Designation Policy and Selection Guidance (2019)

Scheduled monument records provide an indication of the national importance of the scheduled monument which has been identified by the description and map. The description and map showing the scheduled area is the legal part of the scheduling. The statement of national importance and additional information provided are supplementary. These records are not definitive historical or archaeological accounts or a complete description of the monument(s).

The format of scheduled monument records has changed over time. Earlier records will usually be brief. Some information will not have been recorded and the map will not be to current standards. Even if what is described and what is mapped has changed, the monument is still scheduled.

Scheduled monument consent is required to carry out certain work, including repairs, to scheduled monuments. Applications for scheduled monument consent are made to us. We are happy to discuss your proposals with you before you apply and we do not charge for advice or consent. More information about consent and how to apply for it can be found on our website at www.historicenvironment.scot.

Find out more about scheduling and our other designations at www.historicenvironment.scot/advice-and-support. You can contact us on 0131 668 8914 or at designations@hes.scot.

Images

Cnoc Chaornaidh, chambered cairn, looking east, during daytime, on clear day with cloudy sky.
Cnoc Chaornaidh, chambered cairn, looking north-northeast, during daytime, on clear day with cloudy sky.

Printed: 19/06/2019 23:51