Scheduled Monument

Cairn Irenan, chambered cairnSM3122

Status: Designated

Documents

Where documents include maps, the use of this data is subject to terms and conditions (https://portal.historicenvironment.scot/termsandconditions).

The legal document available for download below constitutes the formal designation of the monument under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979. The additional details provided on this page are provided for information purposes only and do not form part of the designation. Historic Environment Scotland accepts no liability for any loss or damages arising from reliance on any inaccuracies within this additional information.

Summary

Date Added
29/12/1971
Last Date Amended
10/05/2016
Type
Prehistoric ritual and funerary: chambered cairn; stone circle or ring
Local Authority
Highland
Planning Authority
Highland
Parish
Killearnan
NGR
NH 56661 52296
Coordinates
256661, 852296

Description

The monument is a chambered cairn surrounded by the remains of a stone circle, dating from the late Neolithic or early Bronze Age (fourth to third millennia BC). It is visible as an outer kerb of stones about 13m in overall diameter and a smaller inner kerb around the centre of the cairn. Eight monoliths form a stone circle measuring 22m in diameter around the cairn. The monument is located within garden ground on the crest of the natural ridgeline of Kilcoy at around 155m above sea level.

The burial cairn is a Clava cairn, a type only found in the Inverness-shire area. These are circular chambered cairns, sometimes with a surrounding stone circle, named after a collection of cairns at Balnuaran of Clava near Inverness. The cairn has a largely complete outer kerb formed by a circuit of boulders measuring 0.4m-1.2m tall. The inner kerb, centred on the cairn and forming the chamber, is sub-oval in plan and measures 4.25m by 3.25m, formed by smaller boulders each measuring 0.2m-0.6m tall. On the south-southwest of the cairn, an entrance passage, 0.6m wide, leads to the chamber. Two displaced lintels which formed the passage roof now lie across the passageway. The stone circle around the cairn comprises eight large boulders, four of which remain erect as standing stones and the tallest measures 1.8m in height.

The scheduled area, centred on the monument, is circular on plan and measures 30m in diameter. The scheduled area includes the remains described above and an area around them within which evidence relating to the monument's construction, use and abandonment is expected to survive, as shown in red on the accompanying map. The post-and-wire fences and the electricity pole with associated anchor are excluded from the scheduling. The monument was first scheduled in 1971, but the documentation did not meet current standards: the present amendment rectifies this.

Statement of National Importance

The monument is of national importance because of its potential to make a significant addition to our knowledge and understanding of the past, particularly the design and construction of burial monuments, and the nature of belief systems and burial practices during the late Neolithic and early Bronze Age in Ross and Cromarty. It retains its field characteristics to a marked degree including the surviving structural form of stone kerbs, passageway and remains of a stone circle. There is no record of any previous excavation, suggesting high potential for the survival of important archaeological evidence. The well-defined field characteristics of this cairn allow us to interpret its form, function and position in the landscape.  The monument, together with other broadly contemporary sites in the vicinity, can give insights into the nature of the Neolithic landscape and add to our understanding of social organisation, land use and ritual within Ross and Cromarty in the late Neolithic and early Bronze Age.  Clava type cairns are only situated in the Inverness-shire area and loss of the monument from within this relatively small distribution area would significantly diminish our ability to appreciate and understand structures and practices associated with death and burial in prehistory.

References

Bibliography

Historic Environment Scotland http://www.canmore.org.uk reference number CANMORE ID 12824 (accessed on 04/05/2016).

Bradley, R. et al. 2000, The Good Stones: a new investigation of the Clava Cairns. Society of Antiquaries of Scotland Monograph Series Number 17, Edinburgh.

Childe, V G 1944, 'An unrecognised group of chambered cairns', Proc Soc Antiq Scot, vol. 78. Page: 37-8.

Henshall, A S 1963, The chambered tombs of Scotland, vol. 1. Edinburgh.

RCAHMS, 1979 The Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland. The archaeological sites and monuments of the Black Isle, Ross and Cromarty District, Highland Region,. Edinburgh. Page: 8, No. 16.

Woodham, A A 1956, 'A survey of prehistoric monuments in the Black Isle', Proc Soc Antiq Scot, vol. 88. Pages: 66-8.

HER/SMR Reference

  • Highland HER MHG9027

About Scheduled Monuments

Historic Environment Scotland is responsible for designating sites and places at the national level. These designations are Scheduled monuments, Listed buildings, Inventory of gardens and designed landscapes and Inventory of historic battlefields.

We make recommendations to the Scottish Government about historic marine protected areas, and the Scottish Ministers decide whether to designate.

Scheduling is the process that identifies, designates and provides statutory protection for monuments and archaeological sites of national importance as set out in the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979.

We schedule sites and monuments that are found to be of national importance using the selection guidance published in Designation Policy and Selection Guidance (2019)

Scheduled monument records provide an indication of the national importance of the scheduled monument which has been identified by the description and map. The description and map (see ‘legal documents’ above) showing the scheduled area is the designation of the monument under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979. The statement of national importance and additional information provided are supplementary and provided for general information purposes only. Historic Environment Scotland accepts no liability for any loss or damages arising from reliance on any inaccuracies within the statement of national importance or additional information. These records are not definitive historical or archaeological accounts or a complete description of the monument(s).

The format of scheduled monument records has changed over time. Earlier records will usually be brief. Some information will not have been recorded and the map will not be to current standards. Even if what is described and what is mapped has changed, the monument is still scheduled.

Scheduled monument consent is required to carry out certain work, including repairs, to scheduled monuments. Applications for scheduled monument consent are made to us. We are happy to discuss your proposals with you before you apply and we do not charge for advice or consent. More information about consent and how to apply for it can be found on our website at www.historicenvironment.scot.

Find out more about scheduling and our other designations at www.historicenvironment.scot/advice-and-support. You can contact us on 0131 668 8914 or at designations@hes.scot.

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Printed: 21/05/2024 02:30