Scheduled Monument

Tantallon CastleSM13326

Status: Designated

Documents

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Summary

Date Added
30/10/2013
Type
Secular: castle
Local Authority
East Lothian
Parish
North Berwick
NGR
NT 59529 84997
Coordinates
359529, 684997

Description

The monument is Tantallon Castle, which dates from the second half of the 14th century (about AD 1360) and was abandoned in 1651 when it was surrendered to the English following a siege by General Monck. The castle survives as an upstanding ruin comprising three towers projecting from a massive red sandstone curtain wall, a two-storey hall-block and a series of substantial ditches and ramparts on the landward side. The castle is situated at about 30m OD on a high promontory facing the Bass Rock. The monument was originally scheduled in 1921, but the documentation did not meet modern standards: the present amendment rectifies this.

The curtain wall of Tantallon Castle stands some 15m high and 3.5m thick. It runs N-S for a length of about 61m across the neck of the promontory. Intramural staircases give access to the parapet walk. Three towers project from the curtain wall. The Mid Tower housed the entrance gate and the keeper's lodging; the N tower contained the earl's private apartments; and the S tower comprised ancillary accommodation. The curtain wall encloses the inner close, an oblong area measuring about 75m NNW-SSE by 45m transversely, which is protected by sheer 30m-high cliffs along its NE side. A two-storey hall-block and later adjoining kitchen block are located along the N side of the inner close. The foundations of part of another structure are also visible, which would have stood in the inner close against the SE section of the curtain wall. Other visible features in the inner close include a partly completed sea-gate and well on the seaward side.

A series of substantial earthworks protect the landward approach to the castle. An apparently rock-cut ditch is located immediately in front of (W of) the castle. Another ditch, with both an inner and outer rampart, is situated some 75m further W, defining the outer close of the castle. The gate into the outer close is protected by a gun-tower and wall of early 16th-century date. Apart from a 17th-century dovecot, no features are visible on the surface within the outer close, but recent geophysical survey has indicated that complex archaeological remains are likely to be present. Beyond the outer close are the remains of a ravelin, constructed possibly in response to Cromwell's invasion in 1651. A further entrenchment of uncertain date is located some 150m SW of the castle.

The scheduled area is irregular on plan to include the remains described above and an area around them in which evidence for the monument's construction, use and abandonment is expected to survive, as shown in red on the accompanying map. On the SW side the scheduling extends up to the boundary fence line. The scheduling specifically excludes: the above-ground elements of all modern boundary walls and modern fences; the above-ground elements of all signage and services; the top 300mm of all modern paths to allow for their maintenance; and the above-ground elements of the modern wooden bridges.

Statement of National Importance

The monument is of national importance as the impressive remains of the last great curtain-walled castle built in Scotland - a massive stone castle of the 14th century that can make a significant contribution to our understanding of late medieval fortified residences and expressions of status. The later artillery defences can also make a significant contribution to our understanding of artillery and siege warfare, and military developments of the 16th and 17th centuries. The monument survives in excellent condition and, despite the damage wrought by the siege of 1651, is a remarkably intact example of a Scottish medieval castle. It represents an important component of both the medieval and contemporary landscapes. In addition to the upstanding structure, there is very high potential for the survival of buried archaeological remains that can provide information about the development of the castle and the outer defences and entrenchments. Buried remains can also tell us about the daily life of the inhabitants and their trading contacts and economy. The loss of the monument would significantly diminish our ability to understand the form, function and character of late medieval defensive structures in Scotland and would be a significant loss to East Lothian's historic landscape.

References

Bibliography

RCAHMS records the castle as NT58NE 5

Tantallon Castle is a property in the care of Scottish Ministers.

Caldwell, D H 1992b 'Tantallon Castle, East Lothian: a catalogue of the finds', Proc Soc Antiq Scot, vol 121, 335-57.

Historic Scotland 2009 Tantallon Castle. Edinburgh.

MacGibbon, D and Ross, T 1887-92 The castellated and domestic architecture of Scotland from the twelfth to the eighteenth centuries, 5v, vol 1, 429-35. Edinburgh.

MacGibbon, D 1891 'Tantallon Castle', Trans Edinburgh Architect Ass, vol 1, 77-84.

RCAHMS (1924) The Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments and Constructions of Scotland. Eighth report with inventory of monuments and constructions in the county of East Lothian, 61-7. Edinburgh.

Richardson, J S (1950) Tantallon Castle, East Lothian. Edinburgh.

Tabraham, C J and Grove, D (1994) Tantallon Castle. Edinburgh.

Historic Environment Scotland Properties

Tantallon Castle

https://www.historicenvironment.scot/visit-a-place/places/tantallon-castle

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About Scheduled Monuments

Historic Environment Scotland is responsible for the designation of buildings, monuments, gardens and designed landscapes and historic battlefields. We also advise Scottish Ministers on the designation of historic marine protected areas.

Scheduling is the way that a monument or archaeological site of national importance is recognised by law through the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979.

We schedule sites and monuments of national importance using the criteria published in the Historic Environment Scotland Policy Statement.

The description and map showing the scheduled area is the legal part of the scheduling. The additional information in the scheduled monument record gives an indication of the national importance of the monument(s). It is not a definitive account or a complete description of the monument(s). The format of scheduled monument records has changed over time. Earlier records will usually be brief and some information will not have been recorded. Scheduled monument consent is required to carry out certain work, including repairs, to scheduled monuments. Applications for scheduled monument consent are made to us. We are happy to discuss your proposals with you before you apply and we do not charge for advice or consent. More information about consent and how to apply for it can be found on our website at www.historicenvironment.scot.

Find out more about scheduling and our other designations at www.historicenvironment.scot. You can contact us on 0131 668 8716 or at designations@hes.scot.

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Printed: 20/02/2019 13:11