Listed Building

The only legal part of the listing under the Planning (Listing Buildings and Conservation Areas) (Scotland) Act 1997 is the address/name of site. Addresses and building names may have changed since the date of listing – see 'About Listed Buildings' below for more information. The further details below the 'Address/Name of Site' are provided for information purposes only.

Address/Name of Site

FOYERS HYDROELECTRIC POWER SCHEME AND FORMER ALUMINIUM SMELTER, LOCH MHOR DAMLB51700

Status: Designated

Documents

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Summary

Category
C
Date Added
11/02/2011
Local Authority
Highland
Planning Authority
Highland
Parish
Boleskine And Abertarff
NGR
NH 51273 18173
Coordinates
251273, 818173

Description

Probably Cameron Burnett for British Aluminium Company, 1895-6; later alterations. Large 2-section dam with small crenellated control turret off-centre to right (SE) and lower, deep rectangular section dam wall beyond. Concrete, masonry and rammed earth with later concrete reinforcement to wall to left (NW). Coursed random rubble facings to dam walls; turret with shaped coping stones to left (NW); deep sloped concrete top to right (SE). Dressed surrounds to turret with flat copes to parapet. Rammed earth and random rubble wave wall to outlet. Later uPVC windows to turret.

INTERIOR: plain interior to turret with boarded floor at ground and 1st floors. Original control gear for sluice gates set into walls at ground floor.

Statement of Special Interest

This dam forms part of an A-group with the Foyers powerhouse and River Tarff intake (see separate listings). The dam is prominently sited in a moorland setting and forms a key part of the functioning of the Foyers hydroelectric power scheme, which is the earliest example of the large scale use of hydroelectric power in Scotland, and amongst the earliest developments in Europe. The long low profile of the dam is suited to the moorland setting and provides a striking geometric counterpoint to the sinuous natural forms which surround it. The castellated design influences on the dam clearly link it to the Powerhouse (see separate listing), which is designed in a similar style.

The dam raised the level of two smaller lochs to create a single large loch, Loch Mhor, to provide water storage and flow regulation for powerhouse at Foyers. The power was used for electrolysis to produce Aluminium from Bauxite in the aluminium smelter which was contained in the same buildings as the powerhouse.

The development of the Foyers scheme was highly influential, not only proving the viability of the technology to produce electricity with water driven turbines but also that the power produced could be applied to industrial processes successfully. The British Aluminium Company went on to develop 2 other large smelters in Scotland at Lochaber and Kinlochleven (see separate listings). The development of the Foyers scheme also had a significant impact on the local community, providing over 250 jobs around which a small settlement, including church and school, quickly developed.

The Foyers scheme was probably designed by Cameron & Burnett, although they are likely to have worked in partnership with the British Aluminium Company's scientific adviser, Lord Kelvin on technical aspects of the design. They were prominent hotel architects in the Highland area, practising from Inverness and working mainly for the Highland Railway. The only other industrial commission by the practice is Millburn distillery in Inverness. The practice was also involved in designs for the buildings forming the village at Foyers.

The development of the Foyers Scheme predates the 1943 Hydroelectric (Scotland) Act which formalised the development of Hydroelectricity in Scotland and led to the founding of the North of Scotland Hydroelectric Board. Those developments which predated the 1943 act were developed by individual companies as a response to particular market and topographic conditions, in this case as a direct requirement for the production of aluminium. The completion of a number of schemes (including Galloway, Grampian and those associated with Alcan ' see separate listings) without a national strategic policy framework is highly unusual as is the consistency of high quality aesthetic and engineering design across all of the schemes.

The scheme ceased to be used for the smelting of aluminium in 1970 and was later taken over by Scottish and Southern Energy with the water now used to power a 5mW turbine in the former powerhouse and as part of a nearby pumped storage facility.

(Listed 2011 as part of Hydroelectric Power Thematic Survey)

References

Bibliography

John Hume, The Industrial Archaeology of Scotland, Vol. ii 1977, p. 46-7, 204; Peter Payne, The Hydro: a study of the development of the major hydro-electric schemes undertaken by the North of Scotland Hydro-Electric Board, 1988, p. 5; Emma Wood, The Hydro Boys, 2002, p. 38; J Miller, The dam builders: power from the glens, 2002.

About Listed Buildings

Historic Environment Scotland is responsible for designating sites and places at the national level. These designations are Scheduled monuments, Listed buildings, Inventory of gardens and designed landscapes and Inventory of historic battlefields.

We make recommendations to the Scottish Government about historic marine protected areas, and the Scottish Ministers decide whether to designate.

Listing is the process that identifies, designates and provides statutory protection for buildings of special architectural or historic interest as set out in the Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) (Scotland) Act 1997.

We list buildings which are found to be of special architectural or historic interest using the selection guidance published in Designation Policy and Selection Guidance (2019)

Listed building records provide an indication of the special architectural or historic interest of the listed building which has been identified by its statutory address. The description and additional information provided are supplementary and have no legal weight.

These records are not definitive historical accounts or a complete description of the building(s). If part of a building is not described it does not mean it is not listed. The format of the listed building record has changed over time. Earlier records may be brief and some information will not have been recorded.

The legal part of the listing is the address/name of site which is known as the statutory address. Other than the name or address of a listed building, further details are provided for information purposes only. Historic Environment Scotland does not accept any liability for any loss or damage suffered as a consequence of inaccuracies in the information provided. Addresses and building names may have changed since the date of listing. Even if a number or name is missing from a listing address it will still be listed. Listing covers both the exterior and the interior and any object or structure fixed to the building. Listing also applies to buildings or structures not physically attached but which are part of the curtilage (or land) of the listed building as long as they were erected before 1 July 1948.

While Historic Environment Scotland is responsible for designating listed buildings, the planning authority is responsible for determining what is covered by the listing, including what is listed through curtilage. However, for listed buildings designated or for listings amended from 1 October 2015, legal exclusions to the listing may apply.

If part of a building is not listed, it will say that it is excluded in the statutory address and in the statement of special interest in the listed building record. The statement will use the word 'excluding' and quote the relevant section of the 1997 Act. Some earlier listed building records may use the word 'excluding', but if the Act is not quoted, the record has not been revised to reflect subsequent legislation.

Listed building consent is required for changes to a listed building which affect its character as a building of special architectural or historic interest. The relevant planning authority is the point of contact for applications for listed building consent.

Find out more about listing and our other designations at www.historicenvironment.scot/advice-and-support. You can contact us on 0131 668 8914 or at designations@hes.scot.

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