Listed Building

The only legal part of the listing under the Planning (Listing Buildings and Conservation Areas) (Scotland) Act 1997 is the address/name of site. Addresses and building names may have changed since the date of listing – see 'About Listed Buildings' below for more information. The further details below the 'Address/Name of Site' are provided for information purposes only.

Address/Name of Site

NEW LANARK ROAD, BRAXFIELD HOUSELB37035

Status: Designated

Documents

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Summary

Category
B
Date Added
12/01/1971
Local Authority
South Lanarkshire
Planning Authority
South Lanarkshire
Burgh
Lanark
NGR
NS 87581 43154
Coordinates
287581, 643154

Description

Mid 18th century with late 18th century additions; now roofless ruin. Near-symmetrical, U-plan group of three 4-bay blocks arranged around courtyard. Tall central 2-storey and attic block with pediment to courtyard; slightly lower 2-storey wings to N and S. Curved walls extending from wings to form entrance to courtyard. Sandstone rubble with ashlar dressings. Discontinuous string cours. Regular fenestration with projecting cills. Scrolled skewputts to W block. Vaulted basement.

Statement of Special Interest

Braxfield House is important as an example of 18th century classical domestic architecture, as one of the oldest surviving buildings on Braxfield estate, and for of its close connections with Robert Owen. Moreover Braxfield estate is one of the main designed landscape components of the Falls of Clyde designated landscape in the Inventory of Gardens and Designed Landscapes, which contribute to the outstanding scenic qualities of this part of the Clyde. Though ruinous the house retains some features of interest such as the scrolled skewputts.

The estate is marked on Pont's map of the late 16th century, though the present house is somewhat later. The original building at the NW corner of the courtyard appears to have been a mid-18th century conventional small laird's house of 2 storeys with crow-stepped gables, having one main room on each side of a central doorway and staircase. It was extended in 2 phases to form a U-plan country house towards the end of the 18th century. The first phase of extensions included the addition of a single storey E range, which probably contained offices and a central gateway, and also the construction of the S range. The second phase comprised the block with pedimented central section facing into the courtyard at W and joining the earlier N and S ranges. This was intended to be the dominating feature of the house and contained the reception rooms. The curving wing walls appear to have been added at the same time as this W block and to have flanked the entrance.

Braxfield estate was acquired shortly after 1710 by John MacQueen, writer in Lanark, later sheriff-substitute of Lanarkshire. The earliest part of the house is thought to have been built for him. In 1771 the estate passed to his son, Robert, who developed the estate from that date by buying land from the Burgh of Lanark. Robert MacQueen (1722-99), whose harsh conduct on the bench earned him the title 'the hanging judge', is likely to have been responsible for the construction of the W range. The house was subsequently occupied by Robert Owen of New Lanark, 1808-1828. Tsar Nicholas I stayed here in 1816 as Owen's guest. In 1832 the estate was described by Cobbett as 'the beautiful park and mansion occupied by Messrs Walker'. At this time the house was tenanted by Charles and Henry Walker who ran the mills until the 1880s, though the McQueen family retained ownership. In 1913 the estate was combined with that of Castlebank which was by then in the ownership of the Houldsworth family. The house was abandoned when the estate was sold in 1931 and subsequently became a roofless ruin.

In 1784 part of the Braxfield estate was feued to provide the bulk of the ground on which New Lanark was to be built. New Lanark village is made up of industrial, residential and community buildings, dating predominantly from between 1786 and the 1820s. The mill complex was founded by David Dale, Glasgow merchant, in conjunction with Richard Arkwright, trailblazing inventor of the cotton industry. Dale's humane philosophy was expanded by Robert Owen, who took over management of the mill village in partnership from 1799-1825. The mills were in operation from 1786 to 1968.

Within World Heritage Site inscribed 2001.

List description updated 2010.

References

Bibliography

Timothy Pont: Maps of Scotland circa 1580-1590. 1st edition Ordnance Survey map (1857). G V Irving, Upper Ward of Lanarkshire described and delineated, 1864. Photographs in New Lanark Conservation Trust Archive. NMRS Archives - record sheet and plan ref nos LAR 22/1, LAD 101/1. Historic Scotland, Nomination of New Lanark for inclusion on the list of World Heritage Sites (2000). www.scran.ac.uk [accessed 2007].

About Listed Buildings

Historic Environment Scotland is responsible for designating sites and places at the national level. These designations are Scheduled monuments, Listed buildings, Inventory of gardens and designed landscapes and Inventory of historic battlefields.

We make recommendations to the Scottish Government about historic marine protected areas, and the Scottish Ministers decide whether to designate.

Listing is the process that identifies, designates and provides statutory protection for buildings of special architectural or historic interest as set out in the Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) (Scotland) Act 1997.

We list buildings which are found to be of special architectural or historic interest using the selection guidance published in Designation Policy and Selection Guidance (2019)

Listed building records provide an indication of the special architectural or historic interest of the listed building which has been identified by its statutory address. The description and additional information provided are supplementary and have no legal weight.

These records are not definitive historical accounts or a complete description of the building(s). If part of a building is not described it does not mean it is not listed. The format of the listed building record has changed over time. Earlier records may be brief and some information will not have been recorded.

The legal part of the listing is the address/name of site which is known as the statutory address. Other than the name or address of a listed building, further details are provided for information purposes only. Historic Environment Scotland does not accept any liability for any loss or damage suffered as a consequence of inaccuracies in the information provided. Addresses and building names may have changed since the date of listing. Even if a number or name is missing from a listing address it will still be listed. Listing covers both the exterior and the interior and any object or structure fixed to the building. Listing also applies to buildings or structures not physically attached but which are part of the curtilage (or land) of the listed building as long as they were erected before 1 July 1948.

While Historic Environment Scotland is responsible for designating listed buildings, the planning authority is responsible for determining what is covered by the listing, including what is listed through curtilage. However, for listed buildings designated or for listings amended from 1 October 2015, legal exclusions to the listing may apply.

If part of a building is not listed, it will say that it is excluded in the statutory address and in the statement of special interest in the listed building record. The statement will use the word 'excluding' and quote the relevant section of the 1997 Act. Some earlier listed building records may use the word 'excluding', but if the Act is not quoted, the record has not been revised to reflect subsequent legislation.

Listed building consent is required for changes to a listed building which affect its character as a building of special architectural or historic interest. The relevant planning authority is the point of contact for applications for listed building consent.

Find out more about listing and our other designations at www.historicenvironment.scot/advice-and-support. You can contact us on 0131 668 8914 or at designations@hes.scot.

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Printed: 05/03/2021 12:45