Listed Building

The only legal part of the listing is the address/name of site. Addresses and building names may have changed since the date of listing – see ‘About Listed Buildings’ below for more information.

1 ST ANDREWS SQUARE, ST ANDREWS PARISH CHURCH (CHURCH OF SCOTLAND)LB32830

Status: Designated

Documents

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Summary

Category
A
Date Added
06/07/1966
Local Authority
Glasgow
Planning Authority
Glasgow
Burgh
Glasgow
NGR
NS 59702 64678
Coordinates
259702, 664678

Description

Alan Dreghorn, architect, 1739-1756. The design for this important and striking church is based largely upon James Gibb's London masterpiece of St Martin-in-the-Fields (1722), and it heralds a new style for large scale classical church design in Scotland. The interior has London precedents in the plasterwork of James Clayton and the richness of its' fittings are of exceptional quality.

Rectangular galleried church, 5 x 7 bays strictly symmetrical with 5-stage steeple, polished ashlar, stonecleaned. Bays marked by giant Corinthian pilasters and angle pilasters. All openings in Gibbsian rusticated surrounds with keystones and bracketted cills, those to ground depressed-arched, those to 1st round-arched. W elevation has steps to giant unfluted Corinthian hexastyle portico 1-bay deep, outer and centre bays to ground have round arched doorways with semi-circular fanlights and double-leaf panelled doors. Inner bays to ground and 1st

have niches. Otherwise sash and case windows with small-pane glazing. Dentilled pediment with cartouche in tympanum.

E elevation with Venetian window to centre bay, square headed doorways to outer bays with triangular pediments.

Flanks 7-bay regularly detailed as above.

Polished band course over ground, dentilled cornice. Balustraded parapet with die pedestals supporting urn finials, similar finials to gable apexes.

STEEPLE square section to lower 2 stages, oculi to lowest stage, 2nd stage rusticated quoins round-arched windows to each face. Cornice with angle urn finials over 2nd, clockfaces to 3rd. Above this rises octagonal colonnaded drum with dome surmounted by pinnacle with ball finial.

INTERIOR: exceptionally lavish 18th century interior, largely unaltered in its finest features of plasterwork and woodwork, however, alterations to the interior were carried out in 1874 by John Carrick, and in 1921 by Peter MacGregor Chalmers. 5-bay interior galleried to 3 sides with giant fluted Corinthian Columns supporting galleries as they rise to support barrel vaulted roof. To W gallery supported by smaller fluted Ionic columns, all with gilded capitals, to E shallow chancel (formerly site of organ). The plasterwork, by Thomas Clayton, and the

timberwork are of the highest quality as is the stained glass, mainly by Stephen Adam. The pews are laid out with aisles below the galleries, they are of pine and date from 1874 designed by John Carrick. The gallery fronts are original, carved mahogony in swagged and diapered panels. The fine mahogony octagonal pulpit rises from an

elaborately carved baluster shaft also supported by a Corinthian pillar which terminates in a gilded crown.

The rococco plasterwork of the vaulted ceiling is the work of Thomas Clayton begun 1753, as presumably is the elaborate gilded plaster surround to the clock in the W wall. The stained glass replaced original clear glazed sash and case windows, it all dates from circa 1874 and is signed by Stephen Adam. The Robert Anderson memorial window to the N gallery is particularly good and Pre- Raphaelite in design.

In the chancel are now housed 9 fine mid 18th-century chairs, originally sited in the W gallery as seating for the Provost and magistrates. Flanking the chancel the Willis organ (1874) is now housed in the upper N chamber. Organ pies to rear of chancel. The walls throughout are stencilled and gilded, repainted in 1920's but to a much earlier design.

Statement of Special Interest

St Andrew's became the centrepiece to a symmetrical square of 3-storey terraced houses laid out in 1760's, (now mostly demolished or sadly altered) and set the pattern for later building layout in Glasgow. It is possibly the most important and impressive 18th-century church in Scotland.

The architect, Allan Dreghorn (19-6-1764) was a wealthy timber and lead merchant and a prominent number of Glasgow's ruling elite, he held several municipal posts (Treasurer and Bailiff). His skill as an architect is amply attested by St Andrew's Parish Church, his main surviving work. It is presumed that his own workshops provided the carved timberwork for the church.

References

Bibliography

Information from D M Walker. Gomme and Walker 1987, p.58-60.

Doak (ed) 10. Information by courtesy of the Buildings of

Scotland Research Unit. H M Colvin p.274.

About Listed Buildings

Historic Environment Scotland is responsible for designating sites and places at the national level. These designations are Scheduled monuments, Listed buildings, Inventory of gardens and designed landscapes and Inventory of historic battlefields.

We make recommendations to the Scottish Government about historic marine protected areas, and the Scottish Ministers decide whether to designate.

Listing is the process that identifies, designates and provides statutory protection for buildings of special architectural or historic interest as set out in the Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) (Scotland) Act 1997.

We list buildings which are found to be of special architectural or historic interest using the selection guidance published in Designation Policy and Selection Guidance (2019)

Listed building records provide an indication of the special architectural or historic interest of the listed building which has been identified by its statutory address. The description and additional information provided are supplementary and have no legal weight.

These records are not definitive historical accounts or a complete description of the building(s). If part of a building is not described it does not mean it is not listed. The format of the listed building record has changed over time. Earlier records may be brief and some information will not have been recorded.

The legal part of the listing is the address/name of site which is known as the statutory address. Addresses and building names may have changed since the date of listing. Even if a number or name is missing from a listing address it will still be listed. Listing covers both the exterior and the interior and any object or structure fixed to the building. Listing also applies to buildings or structures not physically attached but which are part of the curtilage (or land) of the listed building as long as they were erected before 1 July 1948.

While Historic Environment Scotland is responsible for designating listed buildings, the planning authority is responsible for determining what is covered by the listing, including what is listed through curtilage. However, for listed buildings designated or for listings amended from 1 October 2015, legal exclusions to the listing may apply.

If part of a building is not listed, it will say that it is excluded in the statutory address and in the statement of special interest in the listed building record. The statement will use the word 'excluding' and quote the relevant section of the 1997 Act. Some earlier listed building records may use the word 'excluding', but if the Act is not quoted, the record has not been revised to reflect subsequent legislation.

Listed building consent is required for changes to a listed building which affect its character as a building of special architectural or historic interest. The relevant planning authority is the point of contact for applications for listed building consent.

Find out more about listing and our other designations at www.historicenvironment.scot/advice-and-support. You can contact us on 0131 668 8914 or at designations@hes.scot.

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