Copper's Cottage, designed by James Barbour in 1874 (from datestone) in a neo-Tudor style, is a single storey with attic, L-plan, former police station and policeman's house. It is built of bull-faced squared snecked rubble with red sandstone ashlar dressings, long and short quoins, and chamfered window and door openings. The building is along a main road and is set in its own garden grounds.
The west (entrance) elevation has an off-centre projecting gabled entrance porch with a stepped hoodmoulded doorway and a panelled timber door with an arched fanlight. To the left of the entrance the building is set back and has three windows. A larger centre window is flanked by two narrow slit windows. To the right of the entrance is a slightly gabled projecting bay with a stepped hoodmolded tripartite window. Above the window is a date stone, labelled 1874.
The south elevation is symmetrical and three bays wide. There is an advanced gabled bay to the centre with a gabled stepped hoodmolded tripartite window. Above the window is a blank panel. The central bay is flanked by tripartite windows.
The east (rear) elevation has a narrow open court, enclosed by a stone wall which is linked to a bull-faced stone flat roofed outbuilding.
There are later lean-to in-fill additions that have extended the accommodation to the south range. There are various outbuildings in the grounds to the east.
The north elevation is a blank gabled wall. To the left is the courtyard wall and outbuilding.
The building's roof is pitched with grey slates and has overlapping skews with corbelled skewputts. The building has three coped chimney stacks, two to the south elevation and one to the front pitch of the west elevation. The building has predominately replacement windows.
The boundary is formed of a low coped stone wall, with tall stone coped gatepiers.
The interior, seen in 2017, largely retains the plan form of the police house (to the south) and station (to the north) which are still arranged along two access corridors. The former police station retains some late 19th century fabric including evidence of two police holding cells, which is now domestic accommodation.
In accordance with Section 1 (4A) of the Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) (Scotland) Act 1997 the following are excluded from the listing: all concrete, wood, brick and corrugated iron 20th century attached lean-tos and outbuildings to east, Ashyard Road, Eaglesfield.
Statement of Special Interest
Copper s Cottage, formerly Eaglesfield Police Station and cottage, is a largely unaltered example of a later 19th century purpose-built rural police station, a building type that is now relatively rare. The building is also of interest through its retained plan form that illustrates how the building was previously used. The building was constructed as part of the expansion in policing across Scotland during the second half of the 19th century, directly illustrating its social history.
Copper s Cottage (former Eaglesfield Police Station and cottage), including rear court and stone outbuilding, gatepiers and boundary walls, and excluding all concrete, wood, brick and corrugated iron 20th century attached lean-tos and outbuildings to east, Ashyard Road, Eaglesfield, category of listing changed from B to C and listed building record revised 2018. Previously listed as COPPER S COTTAGE INCLUDING GARDEN WALL.
Age and Rarity
Eaglesfield Police Station and cottage was built in 1874 by the Dumfries-based architect James Barbour. The building is first shown on the 2nd Edition Ordnance Survey map (revised 1898, published 1899). Within the building was residential accommodation for a police officer and family, police office, a cell block and a small exercise court to the rear, fully enclosed by a high wall. The map shows the building in an L-plan within a large rectangular garden with a boundary wall.
Glasgow was the first city in Scotland to establish a police force. Early policing was dependent on private funding, or the establishment of local bylaws. During the first half of the 19th century, police forces gradually formed in counties and burghs throughout the country. The Police (Scotland) Act of 1857 required every Scottish county and burgh to establish a police force. In some areas smaller counties and burghs joined together to fund this. Police stations were built to accommodate these forces in most areas of population. In rural areas policing was through rural stations with cell capacity for short term detention.
By the early 20th century, areas of population changed to become largely more urban and local policing demands altered, with the result that some police forces combined and others were established. On 18 November 1939 The Dumfries and Galloway Standard recorded the closing of Eaglesfield Police Station and sale for residential accommodation. It is presumed that at this point the building was converted to residential use completely, as seen today.
Eaglesfield is one of the earliest police stations within Dumfriesshire as well as being one of Barbour's earlier commissions (see Technological excellence or innovation, material or design quality below).
Buildings put up between 1840 and 1945 which are of special architectural or historic
interest and of definite character either individually or as part of a group may be listed. Copper's Cottage survives largely in its original form to the exterior and retains elements of the interior which represent its former function as a police station. It is among a small number of surviving rural police stations in Scotland and is also of interest for its association with policing in Dumfries and Galloway at the end of the 19th century.
The building is a relatively rare surviving example of its building type. There are around 60 Police buildings listed, many of which incorporate large public buildings such as courthouses. Purpose-built police stations and station houses are less common and a small number now survive. Of the buildings listed and associated with policing less than ten are known to include residential accommodation. Dating to 1874, Copper's Cottage is among the oldest surviving purpose-built police stations in Scotland following police reform in the mid-19th century and is illustrative of the history of policing in Scotland.
Architectural or Historic Interest
Some later 19th century detailing is still evident along the east west corridor, such as decorative inner entrance lobby door, timber skirting boards and timber architraves and doors. These features are typical for a dwelling of this date.
On balance the interior fixtures and fittings have not survived to the degree that is special in listing terms. There is no special interest under this heading.
The 1874 plan form remains largely intact and contributes to our understanding of the building's former use as a police station and cottage. The plan form is L-shaped made up of two separate wings. The plan form is of interest for the way it separates the dual function, of a police station and cottage required within the building.
To the rear, the small court, which is still intact, provided secure enclosed outdoor space, demonstrating the requirements of policing in built form. Alterations following the change of use in 1939, which have been made by the addition of several lean-to buildings in the re-entrant angle to the rear, have not adversely affected the 19th century plan form of the building.
Technological excellence or innovation, material or design quality
Copper's Cottage is built in a rustic neo-Tudor style which in the second half of the 19th century was popular in the design of public buildings. The building's stone construction is of some quality, with elevations of bull-faced squared snecked rubble, red sandstone dressings, chamfered reveals, heavy overlapping skews, stepped hoodmoulded windows, vaulted stone ceilings and arched fanlight. The architectural style references the fortified Scottish building tradition and provides an imposing appearance common amongst early police stations and prisons.
The architect of Copper's Cottage, James Barbour was born in 1834 and was apprenticed to Walter Newall, architect and civil engineer in Dumfries. In 1860 Barbour set up practice as an architect and civil engineer in Dumfries, succeeding Walter Newall who retired around the same time. Barbour had a long and successful career beginning in 1860 and ending with his death in 1912, his work included many private homes, churches, schools, hydraulic schemes, civic and commercial buildings, as well as the police stations of Dumfries and Galloway.
The Dictionary of Scottish Architects records that Barbour completed a dozen police stations in Dumfries and Galloway, being the architect of almost all the police stations to be constructed in the late 19th and early 20th century within the county. Other listed examples include Moniaive Village, Ayr Street, Carradale (LB10330) dating to 1864, 2 Bank Street, Annan (LB21067) dating to 1882 and Thornhill, East Morton Street Police Station and house (LB17356) dating to 1909. Other examples that remain and are unlisted are in Moffat, built in 1868 with 1904 alterations, Dunscore built in 1886 and Clarencefield built in1910. Copper's Cottage, formerly Eaglesfield Police Station and cottage, is amongst Barbour's earliest work and one of his earlier police stations.
Barbour's Thornhill, Moffat, Dunscore and Clarencefield police stations included domestic accommodation. Whilst the inclusion of the living accommodation is not unique in police stations of this date, this building is a largely unaltered example and is of a notable design.
The immediate setting of Copper's Cottage remains unchanged from that depicted on the 2nd Edition Ordnance Survey (revised 1898 and published 1899). The building is along a main road and is highly visible and easily accessible which is typical of rural police stations.
The area surrounding Copper's Cottage retains its rural character. The close surroundings remain made up of 19th century farms and small village houses of various architectural styles and dates.
The use of red sandstone is typical of historic buildings in Dumfries and Galloway.
Close Historical Associations
There are no known associations with a person or event of national importance at present (2018).