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Inventory Garden & Designed Landscape

MONREITHGDL00287

Status: Designated

Documents

Where documents include maps, the use of this data is subject to terms and conditions.

Summary

Information

  • Category: N/A
  • Date Added: 01/07/1987

Location

  • Local Authority: Dumfries And Galloway
  • Parish: Mochrum

National Grid Reference

  • NGR: NX 35913 43106
  • Coordinates: 235913, 543106

Summary

An attractive designed landscape comprising parkland, lochs, woodland, formal and walled gardens, notable architectural features and an ancient monument.

Importance of Site

A site included in the Inventory is assessed for its condition and integrity and for its level of importance. The criteria used are set out in Annex 5 of the Scottish Historic Environment Policy (December 2011). The principles are represented by the following value-based criteria and we have assigned a value for each on a scale ranging from outstanding value to no value. Criteria not applicable to a particular site have been omitted. All sites included in the Inventory are considered to be of national importance.

Work of Art

Value:
Outstanding

The designed landscape of Monreith has outstanding value as a Work of Art due to the quality of its original design and the subsequent embellishments made to it.

Historical

Value:
Outstanding

Monreith has outstanding Historical value due to its associations with the Maxwell family since the 15th century, in particular, with Sir Herbert Maxwell.

Horticultural, Arboricultural, Silvicultural

Value:
Outstanding

Monreith has had outstanding Horticultural value in the past although some of the plant material has been lost or is under threat.

Architectural

Value:
Outstanding

Monreith has outstanding Architectural value as it provides the setting for a category A listed building.

Scenic

Value:
Some

The woodlands and parkland of Monreith are of some Scenic value.

Nature Conservation

Value:
Outstanding

Monreith has outstanding Nature Conservation value due to the extensive undisturbed lochside habitats, and an area, including the White Loch, has been designated as an SSSI.

Archaeological

Value:
Not Assessed

Location and Setting

Monreith is situated in the south-west of The Machars of Wigtownshire, approximately 0.5 mile (1km) inland from the coastal village of Port William to the west and the village of Monreith to the south. The town of Wigtown lies some 9.5 miles (15km) to the north-east and the town of Stranraer lies some 21 miles (34km) to the north-west. The A714 and the B7021 respectively form the western and northern boundaries of the policies. The landscape is relatively flat and there are no distant views out from within the policies although, from the top of the house, views can be obtained across Luce Bay to Ireland and the Isle of Man. The woodlands on the boundary of the policies are of some significance in the surrounding landscape, and they generally screen views of the policies. The parkland to the south of the house has more recently been exposed to view from the minor road linking Monreith to the A714 due to the felling of Sourcroft Plantation on the southern boundary.

Monreith House stands within a designed landscape which extends north to the B7021, south to the minor road linking the village of Monreith with the A714, which forms the western boundary and east to the Monreith Burn and Waterloo Plantation. Documentary evidence of the development of the designed landscape is provided by General Roy's map of c.1750, a survey plan of 1801, the 1st edition OS map of 1848 and the 2nd edition OS map of c.1900. Comparison of these maps indicates that the present extent of the designed landscape has remained consistent with the original layout of c.1800.

The 1st edition OS map indicates three drives converging on the house from the north, and also two from the west, Lochend Drive and Airlour Drive leading to Airlour Lodge, the Dower House of the estate at that time. Between the surveys of the 1st & 2nd edition OS maps, a new drive was made to the south of the house, linking it with the village of Monreith; this and Lochend Drive are now disused and access to the house is by the Wigtown Drive and the Airlour Drive.

The designed landscape today includes some 733 acres (297ha), including the White Loch of Myrton. Black Loch, which stood in the park to the east of the house on the survey of 1801, has now gone. Myrton Cottage situated to the north-west of the walled garden has been altered and is now a private house.

Site History

The Monreith estate was acquired by a younger branch of the Maxwells of Caerlaverock in the 15th century. The original family home was Myrton Castle, now in ruins, which stands on high ground above the east bank of the Myrton Loch.

The baronetcy was conferred on William Maxwell in 1681. His grandson who succeeded to the title of 3rd Baronet in 1730 married Magdalene, daughter of William Blair of Blair. Tapestry work by her of flowers which grew in the walled garden of Myrton in her lifetime remains in the house today, and provides the only available record of the nature of the garden at that time. Reference to General Roy's map of c.1750 indicates the designed landscape of this time to include two square enclosures around the Castle and a woodland belt along the east shore of Myrton Loch.

Their son, Sir William Maxwell, 4th Baronet, inherited the estate on his father's death in 1771. He was responsible for the construction of the new house in its present position and for the layout of the designed landscape which remains today. The survey plan commissioned by him indicates the extent of the designed landscape by this time. He continued to develop the policies up until his death in 1812.

The 7th Baronet, Sir Herbert Maxwell, succeeded to his father's estates in 1877. He held a number of offices and was well known as an academic, politician, painter and writer. He wrote of several gardens, in addition to his own, in his book 'Scottish Gardens' published in 1911. He was a knowledgeable plantsman and introduced many rare species into the woodland garden which he established at Monreith. He died, aged 95, in 1937, when he was succeeded by his grandson, Sir Aymer, the 8th Baronet, to a reduced estate of c.9,000 acres.

With the advent of war in 1939, the estate, like many, entered a period of decline. After the war, Sir Aymer continued to live in London and the estate was rented for a period of several years. It was inherited in the 1980s by the present owner, Michael Maxwell. On his succession, urgent restoration work was required to save the house. This has been put into operation and, in the meantime, part of the house has been converted for use as flats for holiday letting. The garden and estate in general had run down since World War II and much of the plant collection amassed by Sir Herbert has been lost.

Landscape Components

Architectural Features

Monreith House, listed category B, was built in the late 18th century to the design of Alexander Stevens. It is a three-storey building with a later front Doric porch formed with four fluted columns designed by Sir Robert Smirke in 1821. Myrton Castle, listed A, is a Scheduled Monument. It was partly demolished in the late 18th century on the completion of Monreith House and the ruins are of a 16th century tower and late 17th century L-shaped Castle. The remains of Myrton Chapel, listed category C(S), are situated to the north of Myrton Castle. Monreith Mains, listed category C, dates from the late 18th & early 19th centuries; a date stone of 1813 is incorporated in the fabric of the building. The West Lodge dating from the 18th century and West Gate are both listed category C. The North (Wigtown) Lodge and Lochend Lodge are thought to date from the late 19th century. The terrace wall, on the south side of the house, appears to date from the late 19th century, from comparison of the 1st & 2nd edition OS maps. The Kennels stand at the north end of the loch and are in a derelict condition.

Parkland

The parkland at Monreith was laid out as part of the late 18th century improvements; the designer is unknown. The White Loch of Myrton forms a major landscape feature to the north of the present house and Myrton Castle was situated on its east bank. The survey map of 1801 shows an extensive area of designed parkland with wooded clumps forming features within it rather than with individual specimen trees. Individual trees were, however, planted in the parkland around the immediate vicinity of the house. The parks are shown more prominently on the 1st edition OS map of 1848 by which time a racecourse had been established to the south of the woodland which, by then, encircled the house. All trace of the racetrack had gone by the 2nd edition OS map of c.1900. By this time, a ha-ha had been constructed between the garden and the park.

In recent years, extension of the woodlands and more intensive farming practices have resulted in the loss of many acres of parkland; the present extent constitutes only around half of the original parkland but the woodland clumps within remain, forming an important feature of the design.

Woodland

Reference to the survey plan of 1801 indicates that Moormains and Cupidhill Plantations were already established along with the woodland edge around the White Loch and the many wooded clumps in the parkland. The 1st edition OS map of 1848 indicates the addition of Jaspers, Black Loch, Waterloo and Cockhill plantations. In addition, Lochhill Plantation and the wooded knolls in the park were extended. By 1901, Botany Bay Plantation had been established, as an extension of Cupid Hill Wood; Black Loch Plantation had amalgamated with Waterloo Plantation; and Lochhill Plantation was further extended, this time to up the A710.

In recent years, Sourcroft Plantation on the southern boundary has been felled, leaving only some young conifers, of c.10-15 years of age. Since World War II, many of the other woodlands, including Hillhead, Jaspers & Waterloo Plantations have been replanted with coniferous species. The woodlands to the north of the house, i.e. those within its view, contain a proportion of deciduous trees, mainly beech. The areas adjacent to the loch have been felled and allowed to regenerate with mixed scrub vegetation.

The Gardens

A formal garden was created within a terrace on the south side of the house by Sir Herbert Maxwell in the late 19th century. It is enclosed by a semi-circular balustraded wall. Evidence of the original layout is provided by photographs and postcards of the south front of the house taken between 1900-1910. They show the area to be planted with flowers and shrubs, but it is now all grassed. Steps down from the south side to the woodland garden were flanked by two columnar conifers but they also have gone. Gavin Maxwell describes in his autobiography how his grandfather's garden at Monreith was laid out: 'the garden itself was sloping, haphazardly planned, and surmounted by a half- circular terrace on whose gravel surface a short cut growth of box or privet spelt the Latin words of the 102nd Psalm: "The days of man are but as grass, for he flourisheth as a flower of the field, for as soon as the wind goeth over it is gone and the place thereof shall know it no more" ' (Gavin Maxwell. The House of Elrig. 1965).

Walled Gardens

The walled garden of Monreith was associated with Myrton Castle. Reference to General Roy's map of c.1750 indicates it to be present by that time. The wife of the 3rd Baronet made a tapestry which depicted the flowers in the walled garden at that time and which are described by Sir Herbert in his book of 1911 and include madonna lily, clove carnations, mullein, lupin, hyacinth, red primrose, Polyanthus, guelder rose, Anemone, moss rose, scarlet Lychnis, pink Geranium, Convolvulus, sunflower, sweet- william, Scabious and canterbury bells.

Reference to the 1st edition OS map shows the garden to be in two compartments; the western edge of the most southerly compartment has an informal area within, extending into the woodland on the west boundary. By the 2nd edition map, this feature had gone, replaced by a garden of regular proportions. The walled garden has been used over the past ten years for cattle grazing.

References

Bibliography

Sources

Printed Sources

Herbert Maxwell, 'Scottish Gardens', 1911

Gazetteer of Modern Farm Buildings

Old Statistical Account, 18th century

Gavin Maxwell, The House of Elrig

Ordnance Survey Gazetteer, 1883

Groome's, 1883

HB & MD

Statutory listings

NMRS Photographs

About Designations

Inventory of Gardens and Designed Landscapes

Historic Environment Scotland is responsible for the designation of buildings, monuments, gardens and designed landscapes and historic battlefields. We also advise Scottish Ministers on the designation of historic marine protected areas.

The inventory is a list of Scotland's most important gardens and designed landscapes. We maintain the inventory under the terms of the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979.

We add sites of national importance to the inventory using the criteria published in the Historic Environment Scotland Policy Statement.

The information in the inventory record gives an indication of the national importance of the site(s). It is not a definitive account or a complete description of the site(s). The format of records has changed over time. Earlier records may be brief and some information will not have been recorded.

Enquiries about development proposals, such as those requiring planning permission, on or around inventory sites should be made to the planning authority. The planning authority is the main point of contact for all applications of this type.

Find out more about the inventory of gardens and designed landscapes and our other designations at www.historicenvironment.scot. You can contact us on 0131 668 8716 or at designations@hes.scot.

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Printed: 22/07/2017 17:32