Inventory Garden & Designed Landscape

ARDCHATTAN PRIORYGDL00019

Status: Designated

Documents

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Summary

Date Added
01/07/1987
Local Authority
Argyll And Bute
Parish
Ardchattan And Muckairn
NGR
NM 97193 35054
Coordinates
197193, 735054

Based on a monastic garden that probably dates back to the 13th century, the designed landscape has been improved in the 17th, 19th and 20th centuries, and makes an important contribution to the scenery of the surrounding area.

Type of Site

The present policies are pastures and shelterbelts dating from the mid-19th-century with formal and woodland gardens associated with the house and approaches.

Main Phases of Landscape Development

An early monastic garden with improvements made in the 17th century, the present policies date from mid-19th-century with additions in the early/mid-20th-century.

Importance of Site

A site included in the Inventory is assessed for its condition and integrity and for its level of importance. The criteria used are set out in Annex 5 of the Scottish Historic Environment Policy (December 2011). The principles are represented by the following value-based criteria and we have assigned a value for each on a scale ranging from outstanding value to no value. Criteria not applicable to a particular site have been omitted. All sites included in the Inventory are considered to be of national importance.

Work of Art

Value
High

The gardens at Ardchattan, laid out by the Campbell-Prestons, have high value as a Work of Art.

Historical

Value
Outstanding

The monastic garden dating probably from the 13th century, the surviving trees from the 17th century, and the associations with the Priory give this site outstanding Historical value.

Horticultural, Arboricultural, Silvicultural

Value
High

The range of plant material growing in the gardens gives Ardchattan high Horticultural value.

Architectural

Value
Outstanding

The designed landscape is the setting for the Priory and the house and has outstanding Architectural value.

Scenic

Value
High

The canopy of the woodland and the open parkland contribute to the variety in the surrounding upland scenery, giving this site high Scenic value.

Nature Conservation

Value
Some

The woodland flora and the older trees give Ardchattan some Nature Conservation value.

Archaeological

Value
Not Assessed

Location and Setting

Ardchattan Priory is situated 5 miles (8km) east of the Connel Bridge on the north shore of Loch Etive, about 10 miles (16km) north-east of Oban. Na Maoilean rises to 1,148' (350m) to the north of the Priory. The soil is nearly neutral but the waters of the Ardchattan Burn are more alkaline as it flows through limestone outcrops before reaching the garden. While sheltered by the hills to the north, the site is exposed to severe winds along the loch, but the climate is softened by the influence of the Gulf Stream. There are long views to the south across Loch Etive to the Fearnoch Forest as well as stunning views along the loch to Ben Cruachan in the east and to the hills of Mull in the west. The cultivated pasture and woodlands provide variety in the surrounding upland scenery.

The Priory lies about 100 yards (90m) from the shore in the centre of the designed landscape. Small strips of woodland divide the policies from the surrounding moorland on the three other sides. The policies were enlarged during the 19th century. Documentary evidence relies on General Roy's plan of c.1750 and on the 1st edition OS plan of c.1860. No records of the earlier garden supporting the Priory have been seen but, as there are some very old trees, this would indicate that there has been a garden at Ardchattan for many years. The designed landscape extends to some 76 acres (31ha) today.

Site History

Based on a monastic garden, the designed landscape was improved in the 17th century and extended during the 19th century. The present gardens were created during the 20th century.

The Priory was founded in 1230 for an Order of Benedictine Monks. In 1602 Alexander Campbell received the charter for the land. Some very old trees date from this time and the age of some of the trees which had to be cut down recently was confirmed as over 400 years. In 1654, as a reprisal for the then Laird of Ardchattan supporting the Earl of Glencairn's rising against Cromwell, Cromwellian troops burnt down the church leaving the Abbott's lodgings.

During the turbulent 18th century the Campbells sided with the government against the Stuarts. Thomas Campbell, the last male descendant, died in 1846 leaving the estate to his niece who enlarged the house in 1852 in Victorian Gothic style. In 1878 the estate passed to her 12 year old cousin, Robert Clarke-Preston, a descendant of Sir Robert Preston of Valleyfield. During the latter part of the 19th century the estate was let to several tenants including Mrs Popham and Sir John Lawes, Bt., a distinguished agriculturalist who improved the policies. In 1904 Robert and his new wife took up residence at Ardchattan. Mrs Clarke-Campbell-Preston began gardening; she created formal flowerbeds to the south of the house, and laid out long herbaceous borders. In 1950 her son Colonel Robert Campbell-Preston married Angela Murray, widow of Lt Colonel Antony Murray, killed in action in Italy in April 1945, and daughter of 2nd Viscount Cowdray; together they formed a 'gardening' partnership, Colonel Campbell-Preston providing the plant knowledge and his wife the artistic skills to lay it out. It is mostly their garden which can be seen today. Mrs Campbell-Preston died in 1981 and the Colonel has continued to care for and improve the garden ever since.

Landscape Components

Architectural Features

Ardchattan House, listed category B, dates from before 1600 when it was first altered from the abbey buildings to form a house. A Victorian Wing was added in 1852 by the Glasgow architect Charles Wilson. Ardchattan Priory, listed B, is the ruined remains of the Priory founded in 1230 and sacked in 1654. It is an Ancient Monument and in the care of the Secretary of State for Scotland. Part of it contains the private burial 'aisle' for the Campbells of Ardchattan and Lochnell as well as the fine 'Lochnell' Celtic stone. Colin Campbell of Glenure, brother-in-law of Charles Campbell, Laird of Ardchattan, is buried in the Campbell of Barcaldine Burial section. The Dairy was built c.1850 in a rustic style and has recently been converted into a cottage.

Parkland

The present policies were laid out in the mid-19th century. They consist of three large pastures divided by the Ardchattan Burn which runs down from the hill to the shore. Shelterbelts were planted around the outside of the policies and there are several remaining individual parkland trees, mostly beech dating from about 1830 and sycamore which are about 400 years old. Clumps were planted in the parks nearest the house. The driveway leads through the woodland garden to approach the house from the west.

Woodland

The woodland plantations have been extended since the 1st edition OS map of c.1860. They mainly shelter the policies and consist of hardwoods including oak and sycamore planted in the mid-19th century, amongst some conifers including Scots pine, Douglas fir and larch. Today these small plantations are particularly fine.

The Gardens

The gardens lie to the south and west side of the house and are divided into two areas: the Woodland Garden which runs along the drive, and the Garden in front of the south side of the house. They have been described in greater detail by Sir Ilay Campbell.*

The Rose Garden lies just to the north of the yew hedge which divides it from the south garden. Here the Campbell-Prestons have grown a wide range of 'Old Fashioned' roses as well as some of the more special hybrid tea varieties. Rocks were positioned in the alpine or rock garden just to the west of the house to provide the right conditions to grow true alpines and these included small shrubs and low herbaceous plants.

Just to the south of the house lies the wide herbaceous border planted with many different perennials providing colour from mid-June to the end of November. The wide lawn runs down to the stone boundary wall on which grow several Clematis including a large Clematis montana. In front of the wall is the group of ancient sweet chestnuts thought to have been planted early in the 17th century. Adjoining the Priory wall on the east side of the house runs a long shrub border planted with many tender shrubs including a Drimys aromatica, the large-leaved Senecio rotundifolia, and an unnamed Hebe discovered by George Forrest.

* Scottish Field, May 11, 1985

Walled Gardens

The kitchen garden is clearly shown on the 1st edition OS plan just to the north of the house. Part of it is still used for growing produce and the remainder is used as a paddock. The burn runs to the west of the walled garden and a magnificent walnut overhangs the 'Monk's Pool'. There is a tennis court to the west of the walled garden.

References

Bibliography

Sources

Printed Sources

SF, Oct 1956

Great Gardens of Argyll Brochure

Ardchattan Priory, information leaflet

The Gardens at Ardchattan Priory, article by Sir Ilay Campbell,SF, May 11 1985

G.A. Little, 1981

Groome's

Listings

Historic Environment Scotland Properties

Ardchattan Priory

https://www.historicenvironment.scot/visit-a-place/places/ardchattan-priory

Find out more

Related Designations

  1. Ardchattan Priory, priory, burial ground and carved stonesSM13644

    Designation Type
    Scheduled Monument
    Status
    Designated

About the Inventory of Gardens and Designed Landscapes

Historic Environment Scotland is responsible for the designation of buildings, monuments, gardens and designed landscapes and historic battlefields. We also advise Scottish Ministers on the designation of historic marine protected areas.

The inventory is a list of Scotland's most important gardens and designed landscapes. We maintain the inventory under the terms of the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979.

We add sites of national importance to the inventory using the criteria published in the Historic Environment Scotland Policy Statement.

The information in the inventory record gives an indication of the national importance of the site(s). It is not a definitive account or a complete description of the site(s). The format of records has changed over time. Earlier records may be brief and some information will not have been recorded.

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Images

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Printed: 14/11/2018 07:30