Inventory Battlefield

Battle of Loudoun HillBTL36

Date of Battle: 10 May 1307

Status: Designated

Documents

Where documents include maps, the use of this data is subject to terms and conditions (https://portal.historicenvironment.scot/termsandconditions).

Designation Record and Full Report Contents

  • Name
  • Summary Information
  • Overview and Statement of Significance
  • Inventory Boundary
  • Historical Background to the Battle
    • The Armies
    • Numbers
    • Losses
    • Action
    • Aftermath and Consequences
  • Events and Participants
    • Context
  • Battlefield Landscape
    • Location
    • Terrain
    • Condition
  • Archaeological and Physical Remains and Potential
  • Cultural Association
    • Commemoration and Interpretation
  • References

Summary

Date Added
14/12/2012
Local Authority
East Ayrshire
NGR
NS 60953 37511
Coordinates
260953, 637511

Overview and Statement of Significance

The Battle of Loudoun Hill is significant as one of the first victories of King Robert I (the Bruce) against the English forces, then under Aymer de Valence, following his inauguration as King. As a result of the defeat, Edward I resolves to deal with Bruce personally, but his failing health leads to his death before he even reaches Scotland. Meanwhile, having been victorious in battle, Bruce's cause is boosted and he begins to strengthen his position in Scotland afterwards.

Following on from the skirmish at Glen Trool, where Bruce had caused de Valence's army to flee when they attempted to attack his camp, Bruce and de Valence met again at Loudoun Hill. As the battle was arranged following a challenge by the English commander, Bruce was able to arrive first and prepare the ground before his enemy reached the area. With ditches restricting the ground available for manoeuvre, Bruce was able to overcome the much larger English army and inflict heavy casualties on them.

Inventory Boundary

The Inventory boundary defines the area in which the main events of the battle are considered to have taken place (landscape context) and where associated physical remains and archaeological evidence occur or may be expected (specific qualities). The landscape context is described under battlefield landscape: it encompasses areas of fighting, key movements of troops across the landscape and other important locations, such as the positions of camps or vantage points. Although the landscape has changed since the time of the battle, key characteristics of the terrain at the time of the battle can normally still be identified, enabling events to be more fully understood and interpreted in their landscape context. Specific qualities are described under physical remains and potential: these include landscape features that played a significant role in the battle, other physical remains, such as enclosures or built structures, and areas of known or potential archaeological evidence.

The Inventory boundary for the Battle of Loudoun Hill is defined on the accompanying map and includes the following areas:

  • The plain below Loudoun Hill where the fighting may well have taken place and where there is a reasonable potential for the survival of the ditches dug by the Scots.
  • The A71, following the line of a Roman Road, which probably remained in use in the medieval period and which is likely to have been used by both armies to reach the battlefield.
  • Loudoun Hill which provides a focal point for the location.

Historical Background

Aymer de Valence, Earl of Pembroke, challenged Bruce to fight after the Scots success at Glen Trool in March 1307. As de Valence had almost captured Bruce at Methven in June 1306 following a similar challenge, this approach is unsurprising. Bruce accepted the challenge and the battle was fought on the plains at Loudoun Hill on 10 May 1307. Bruce took the opportunity of the challenge to prepare his ground. He cut three ditches inward from the edge of the mosses, leaving 90m gaps in the centre which were guarded by dismounted pikemen, while soil embankments with ditches protected the flanks. Bruce then gathered his small force and awaited the approach of the English army. De Valence advanced with around 3,000 men. The English force was split into two squadrons as they advanced on Bruce's army. The Scots used their spears to great effect against both men and horses, leaving many wounded, and then charged them as the English assault began to collapse, at which they broke and fled. There was probably no pursuit as the Scots were on foot and thus were unable to chase down the mounted English forces.

The Armies

The only description available of the Scottish army is a comment that Bruce placed dismounted pikemen at the gaps in dykes constructed on the battlefield; however, Barbour (op. cit.: 185) provides a detailed account of the types of weapons that the English soldiers were equipped with, including basinets, spears, shields and coats of armour along with their pennons and banners.

Numbers

Sir Aymer de Valence, Earl of Pembroke: 3,000, according to the contemporary Scottish poet, John Barbour (op. cit., 184), but this figure may well be over-exaggerated. However, the English force certainly outnumbered the Scots.

Robert the Bruce: 600, according to Barbour (ibid.); the only reference to the compilation of Bruce's force notes that pikemen dismounted and located within the gaps in dykes that Bruce had constructed on the battlefield.

Losses

None of the sources give any indication of the losses suffered by either force. The descriptions of the engagement undoubtedly suggest there were casualties, although the numbers may have lower than other medieval battlefields due to the lack of any pursuit of the routed English army.

Action

After his defeat at the hands of Robert Bruce's Scottish army at Glen Trool in March 1307, de Valence retreated south with his forces. When James Douglas apparently attacked de Valence's representative, Philip de Mowbray, he was furious and came north once more to challenge Bruce to fight. Bruce promptly accepted this challenge and the scene was set for a pre-arranged battle on the plains at Loudoun Hill on 10 May 1307.

However, in advance of the battle, Bruce went to Loudoun Hill to inspect the field and noted that it was even and dry with a road situated between two morasses, which remains the case even today at Allanton Plains (Brooks, 2007: 171). The road referred to is probably the remains of a Roman road recently destroyed by quarrying which may have led to Castledykes fort in South Lanarkshire. Bruce cut three ditches inward from the edge of the mosses, leaving 90m gaps in the centre guarded by pikemen on foot, while soil embankments with ditches protected the flanks of the Scottish force (Barbour, 1395: 183).

With the ground prepared to provide his army with a distinct advantage, Bruce collected 600 fighting men and the force made their way to Little Loudoun in order to see the approach of the English army. De Valence advanced with around 3,000 men, according to Barbour (1395, 184). The English force was split into two squadrons as they advanced on Bruce's Scottish army. Bruce motivated his men with a rousing speech, ordering them to meet the foremost of their enemies boldly and reassuring them that those behind would be terrified, he further reinforced that they should consider the great joy that victory will bring them (Barbour, 1395: 187). Emboldened, Bruce's men advanced on their English opponents and the king awaited the English advance in one of the gaps left in his previously prepared dykes. De Valence watched the Scots in the plain and encouraged his men then trumpets sounded as the English army charged the Scots. Barbour reports a great breaking of spears and screams of the wounded as the two sides clashed:

'Quhar men mycht [her] sic a brekyng

Of speris that [to-fruschyt] war

And [the] voundit so cry and rar

That it [anoyus] was till her.

For thai, that first assemblit wer

Fwnyeit and fawcht all sturdely;

The noys begouth than the cry' (Barbour, 1395: 188).

Barbour goes on to describe how Bruce and his brother fought bravely, suggesting that they would both have drawn praise from anyone watching their actions during the battle. The Scots pierced both men and horses with their spears, leaving many wounded, as Bruce repeatedly charged them followed closely by 500 men. Despite de Valence's grief at having been so thoroughly defeated by the Scottish army, the English force began to withdraw under the force of the Scottish attack. The Scots were probably unable to take full advantage of the English withdrawal as they were on foot and unable to pursue the fleeing knights.

Aftermath & Consequences

Having been once more defeated by the inferior numbers of the Scottish King, de Valence fled to Bothwell then possibly continued south to England, where he reportedly tendered his resignation as a result of his humiliating defeat at the hands of the Scots (Barbour 1395, 190), although in reality Edward I appears to have already appointed John of Britanny to replace him. Edward himself finally recognised that Bruce was a serious threat and resolved to deal with him personally, an approach he had successfully used against Scotland in the past. He gathered a new army to deal with the threat and began the march northward. However, the King's health was failing fast, and at Burgh-by-Sands, near Carlisle, on 7 July 1307, Edward I finally died. Without his leadership, the invasion petered out. His son made an attempt to continue, but had too many tasks at home to deal with, including his coronation, to make a serious attempt. For the next seven years, the new English King Edward II was far too busy with domestic issues to be able to send any major force north against Bruce.

Meanwhile, Robert the Bruce took the opportunity of the reduction in English activity to build up his position in Scotland. He now moved to challenge his internal enemies, chiefly the Comyn family. The King moved north and fought a series of actions, including the battles at Barra and Pass of Brander, that delivered Scotland into his hands and made the former Comyn lands of the north-east into a stronghold of his own support, Thomas Randolph becoming Earl of Moray.

Events & Participants

Only two of the participants are named in the sources. The English army was commanded by Sir Aymer de Valence, the Earl of Pembroke. Barbour mentions no other names within the English force. De Valence was a Frenchman by birth but owed his allegiance to the Kings of England for the Earldom of Pembroke. He was a loyal supporter of Edward I and of his son Edward II, fighting for both kings. He was present at Bannockburn in 1314 and helped Edward II escape the field. He was also involved in the arrest of Edward's favourite, Gaveston; the seizure of Gaveston from his custody by the Earl of Lancaster and his subsequent murder in 1312 had the effect of confirming de Valence as a Edward loyalist. His attitude towards Bruce may also be explained by the fact that as well as a loyal servant of the English King, he was also the brother-in-law of John Comyn, murdered by Bruce in 1306.

Robert the Bruce is one of Scotland's most famous historical figures. His grandfather was one of the claimants to the Scottish throne in the dispute following the death of Alexander III. Bruce was crowned King of Scots on 25 March 1306 at Perth, after murdering his rival John Comyn, Lord of Badenoch, also known as the Red Comyn, at Greyfriars Kirk in Dumfries. Although Bruce had authored his own coronation, he would become the focus of Scottish resistance to the English occupation. However, his initial efforts were less impressive than his later accomplishments. He suffered defeat to an English army under Aymer de Valence at Methven in June 1306 and again by the forces of John of Lorn, a relative of John Comyn, at Dail Righ in August, and Bruce was forced to flee mainland Scotland, while many of his family were killed or imprisoned. While in hiding that winter, the legend of the spider spinning a web is said to have inspired him to return in 1307, where he met with more success. He won an important victory against de Valence at Loudoun Hill in May, and gained further advantage when Edward I died at Burgh-by-Sands, near the Scottish border, in July 1307. With the English threat now drastically reduced, Bruce turned to deal with his internal enemies. All of Comyn's supporters opposed Bruce, at least initially, and he faced a long struggle against them in the south-west and in the north-east. The Battle of Barra two years after his coronation was the critical victory of this campaign, leaving him a relatively free hand to deal with his last few Scottish enemies and then to pick off English garrisons one by one, destroying the captured castles in his wake to prevent the English returning to them. After his overwhelming victory in 1314 at Bannockburn, Bruce was able to turn onto the offensive, raiding into England until a settlement was finally signed in 1328 under the Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton.

Context

Scotland's history in the late 13th and 14th century was one of turmoil and conflict. Following the accidental death of King Alexander III in 1286, the heir to the throne was his three-year-old granddaughter, Margaret of Norway (the Maid of Norway). King Edward I of England proposed that she should marry his son and a treaty of marriage was signed in 1290. A ship was sent to fetch Margaret that same year, but she died in Orkney while on her way to Scotland for her inauguration, thereby scuppering Edward's plans.

,Many of the Scottish nobility had some claim to the throne in the absence of a clear successor. The two candidates with the strongest claim were John Balliol and Robert Bruce the Competitor. To settle the position, Edward I of England was asked to decide who should succeed. This process was known as the Great Cause and resulted in a total of 14 claimants competing for the Scottish crown, including Balliol and Bruce.

This situation provided Edward I with a new opportunity to bring Scotland within Plantagenet control. He was asked to preside over the court of inquiry to the dispute, but first insisted on recognition of his overlordship. The Scottish nobility would not agree to his overlordship of the country, unwilling to compromise the rights of the Scottish crown, but they were prepared to accept him as overlord on a personal basis. This was sufficient for Edward, together with control of several royal castles, and he led the court that finally decided on 17 November 1292 in favour of John Balliol.

John's inauguration as king was the start of his downfall. Edward clearly saw the election process as a way to bring Scotland under his control. He behaved towards John like a feudal overlord, repeatedly humiliating John and refusing to treat him as a fellow monarch.

The breaking point for the Scots came in 1294 when Edward summoned John and the Scottish lords to join his army in France as his feudal vassals. This rejection of the sovereignty of the Scottish nation was unacceptable to king and nobility alike. In 1295, the Scottish nobility concluded that John was totally compromised and they elected a council of twelve to run the affairs of the kingdom. In an attempt to counter Edward's power, the council made an alliance with Philip the Fair of France (this was the start of the 'Auld Alliance'). This was effectively a declaration of war against Edward and a rejection of his claim to overlordship, which Edward could claim as an act of rebellion. In support of their new allies, the Scots launched an attack against Carlisle in March 1296.

Edward responded by invading Scotland in 1296, razing Berwick and massacring its inhabitants. His army, under John de Warenne, Earl of Surrey, went on to defeat the Scots army at Dunbar, effectively ending organised resistance. It is important to note that, although the armies were nominally serving the respective English and Scottish Kings, many of the Scots nobility served within the English army in this campaign, including Robert the Bruce, and in other campaigns throughout the Wars of Independence. This reflected both the shifting balance of power between various factions within Scotland, and the fact that the English King compelled some Scottish lords to serve him. After the Battle of Dunbar, Edward advanced through Scotland with almost no opposition. John Balliol was forced to surrender, abdicate his throne and renounce his alliance with France, and was stripped of the royal insignia. Edward also removed the Stone of Destiny from Scone to England, together with the Holy Rood of St Margaret and other symbols of the Scottish crown.

With Balliol removed and his own position strengthened by his victory, Edward again requested Scottish support for his ongoing war with France, but the outcome was not as he hoped. Resistance to his rule remained, but Edward's delegates in Scotland believed the Scots were no longer in a position to oppose him. Consequently they were taken largely by surprise when the Scots rose against English authority in earnest, in spring 1297. Among the notable figures leading the cause this time were William Douglas, Andrew Moray and William Wallace. William Douglas was soon captured following the Capitulation of Irvine, when a number of Scots nobles negotiated a peace with the English king. Wallace and Moray, however, continued the fight against Edward and resisted quite effectively, particularly with the victory at Stirling Bridge in 1297. Moray died in November 1297, but Wallace was knighted and made Guardian of the Realm, and led a punitive raid south into England in early 1298.

These successes came to nought as Philip of France provided no assistance and instead made peace with Edward, leaving the English king free to concentrate on suppressing Scotland. Edward's view was that the Scots were rebels against his authority; this was the terminology he used throughout. He personally led a force to Scotland later that year, inflicting a catastrophic defeat on Wallace's force at Falkirk. Wallace then resigned his position as Guardian, but continued to resist Edward's rule. He sailed to France in 1299 to petition Philip for support, who introduced him to Pope Boniface VII, who had been given custody of John Balliol by Edward. Balliol was released to Philip's custody in 1301, but he was never to return to Scotland - unlike Wallace.

Meanwhile, the debacle of the Scottish defeat at Falkirk had given Edward I the opportunity to conduct several leisurely campaigns over the next few seasons. He consolidated his control over central and southern Scotland by taking numerous strongholds, including Caerlaverock (1300) and Bothwell (1301). By 1302, most of the successes of Wallace and Moray's uprising had been reversed. The majority of strongholds (such as Edinburgh, Berwick and Roxburgh) had remained in English hands, while Stirling was retaken by the English directly after their victory at Falkirk. With central and southern Scotland being pacified, Edward I returned to England leaving garrisons, sheriffs and a lord lieutenant of Scotland in the person of John Segrave to maintain his authority.

The Scots were still unwilling to bow to Edward's authority. John Comyn was chosen as Guardian in 1302 and began a guerrilla campaign against the English king's forces in Scotland. In 1303, a Scottish army under Comyn destroyed a much larger English force at Roslin. However, the war remained in Edward's favour, and Comyn and his supporters negotiated terms with Edward in 1304. After Comyn's submission, Edward adopted a more pragmatic approach to Scotland, realising he needed support within the country if he was to retain his grasp. He restored dispossessed lands to many nobles and placed Scots in positions of authority, but he exiled many others whose loyalty could not be guaranteed. Finally, in 1305, Edward's bitter enemy Wallace was captured by John Stewart of Mentieth, the Keeper of Dumbarton Castle, and surrendered to Edward. Wallace was tried and brutally executed in London ' and Edward's control of Scotland seemed assured.

In 1306, Robert the Bruce, grandson of the Competitor and previously a supporter of Edward against the Balliol loyalists, began to move against Edward. Bruce murdered John 'the Red' Comyn in Greyfriars Kirk, Dumfries, and had himself inaugurated as King Robert I of Scotland at Scone in March 1306. Edward was enraged, again treating it as a rebellion, and declared that there would be no quarter for Bruce or his supporters. He despatched Aymer de Valence with an army to deal with Bruce. Valence, who was a brother-in-law of the murdered Comyn, inflicted a heavy but largely bloodless defeat on Bruce at Methven in June 1306. Bruce was then defeated a second time at Dail Righ by a force of Macdougalls, losing most of his men. Following this, the remainder of Bruce's army was dispersed and many of his family members were captured, each facing execution or long periods of imprisonment for their part. Bruce himself was forced to flee the mainland and went into hiding, possibly on Rathlin Island or in the Western Isles. This is the point at which the legend of the spider spinning a web is said to have inspired him to continue his efforts.

Bruce returned to the Scottish mainland in early 1307 at Turnberry. He now switched to a guerrilla campaign, engaging English forces at Glen Trool and, finally, in the Battle of Loudoun Hill, where he put Valence's army to flight in April 1307. Edward then mounted another invasion, but the English king died at Burgh-by-Sands in Cumbria in July, before crossing the border. Although his son, Edward II, continued the campaign briefly, it soon came to an end. Edward was too distracted by internal difficulties in England to deal effectively with Bruce, including problems at home caused by the hostility of the English barons to Edward's favourite, Piers Gaveston.

Edward's domestic problems provided an opportunity for Bruce to solidify his position in Scotland. He began a campaign to remove his internal enemies, taking control of castles at Inverlochy, Urquhart, Inverness and Nairn, and defeating the forces of the Comyns at the Battle of Barra and the MacDougalls at the Pass of Brander, at the same time as he was building his own support and strength. Once he had secured his own position among the Scots, he turned his attention again to the English. Most Scottish castles remained in English hands and Bruce began to seize these one by one, before destroying them to prevent their reoccupation by his enemies. By the end of 1309, Bruce was in control of much of Scotland, and was finally able to hold his first parliament at St Andrews. Edward launched a retaliatory expedition to Scotland in 1310, but it achieved nothing of note before he withdrew.

Over the next few years, Bruce continued a 'scorched earth' campaign to strengthen his position and weaken the English forces within Scotland. By 1313, only a few Scottish castles remained in English hands. This included Stirling, which was besieged by Bruce's brother Edward in June 1313. Edward Bruce came to an agreement with the governor of the Castle, Philip de Mowbray, by which Mowbray would surrender the castle if not relieved before 24 June 1314.

Meanwhile, King Edward II's political problems had been partially resolved by the killing of Gaveston in 1312 and the submission of the earls of Lancaster, Arundel, Warwick and Hereford in September 1312. The agreement made by de Mowbray made it politically unacceptable for Edward to leave the castle to its fate, while Bruce had also added Roxburgh and Edinburgh to the re-captured castles. The English King raised a large army and marched north to relieve the siege, although many of those present in the army had recently been his enemies.

Edward's army met Bruce's at Bannockburn, just outside Stirling. The Scottish scored a famous victory, which effectively gave Bruce complete control of Scotland while crippling Edward's authority in England. This in turn allowed Bruce to begin raiding into England in an attempt to force Edward to accept Scotland's status as a nation, and he recaptured Berwick in 1318. He appealed to the Pope for support with the Declaration of Arbroath in 1320, and gained papal recognition as king in 1324. However, the English king did not relinquish his claim to Scotland, despite his defeat at Bannockburn and his ongoing struggles in England.. Edward II was deposed by his queen in 1327 and replaced by his 14 year old son Edward III. Finally, in 1328, with the Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton, which recognised Scotland as an independent nation and relinquished any English claim to the throne, the First Scottish War of Independence came to a close.

Battlefield Landscape

The originally recorded site of the Battle of Loudoun Hill was at NS 609 378, although this locates the battlefield on the southern precipitous face of Loudoun Hill. McLeod (1960) suggested a more feasible location would be to the south of the River Irvine and north of Wallace's cairn. Topographically, this location does appear to fit more appropriately into the detailed description provided by Barbour (1395).

Location

As noted above, the originally recorded site of the Battle of Loudoun Hill was at NS 609 378, though the origin of this location remains unknown as the original Ordnance Survey Name Book was destroyed during a World War II bombing raid.

Terrain

The main feature of the landscape at this location is Loudoun Hill itself, which rises steeply to the north, while the battle is assumed to have taken place on a plateau below the hill. To the west, the ground falls away into boggy ground covered by streams and burns, through which the River Irvine runs in a narrow defile towards the sea. To the east, the ground rises to high moorland that runs north-east towards Strathaven.

Condition

The battlefield has seen little residential development. However, it has become part of a significant industrial landscape, with the Darvel and Strathaven section of what was originally the Glasgow and South West Railway running through the south of the site, though it had been closed and dismantled by 1955. More recently, sand quarrying to the east and south-west of the main battlefield may have had a significant adverse impact on the battlefield; the quarry to the south-west having destroyed a Roman fort, for example. There is also evidence for previous quarrying and mining in the area visible on historic maps. Within the main battlefield area there is a disused quarry now filled with water to the west, with a reservoir further to the west. The combination of quarrying, road construction, tracks, drainage ditches and so forth indicates that at least some of the archaeological evidence of the battle may have been disturbed or lost. However, there are some significant areas of the battlefield which appear undisturbed and where good evidence for the events of the battle may survive, in particular if the ditches were located.

Archaeological & Physical Remains and Potential

Surviving archaeological evidence from the battlefield is possible because of the scale of this fighting, the recorded use of ditches by Bruce and the relatively low level of development in the vicinity of the battlefield, although some areas of the battlefield have been extensively quarried. The potential remains include personal accoutrements like buckles and buttons, as well as pieces of horses' tack and horseshoes since the English were a cavalry force. Barbour states that there was a great breaking of spears as the two forces, which may mean that lanceheads and spearheads may survive on site if the soil conditions allow. The ditches are likely to have filled up through erosion over time or have been deliberately backfilled after the battle, however there is a strong possibility they will have survived as archaeological features in the landscape and could be located through geophysical survey or excavation. They also hold the exciting prospect that any clean up of the battlefield after the fighting may have used the ditches as convenient places to dispose of the detritus of battle or even to bury the fallen.

Cultural Association

There is little commemoration of Bruce's victory at Loudoun Hill, despite the fact that it marked a turning point in his fortunes. Three battles were allegedly fought in the general area: one by Wallace in 1296 (though this is of extremely doubtful historicity, it may be Blind Harry ascribing Bruce's victory to Wallace in his writings); Bruce's battle in 1307; and a battle between Covenanters and Claverhouse in 1679 at nearby Drumclog. The only commemoration of the 1307 battle is an engraved stone near the summit of Loudoun Hill. There is a steel monument dedicated to Wallace and the 1296 battle, which has more prominence because of its position within the legend of Wallace; he is said to have gained revenge for the death of his father by killing the English knight Fenwick, who had killed Wallace's father in 1291. There is a ballad called The Battle of Loudoun Hill, but this actually refers to the Battle of Drumclog, which was fought a few miles eastwards in 1679.

Commemoration & Interpretation

No further information.

References

Bibliography

Barbour, J. 1395 [1997]. The Bruce, (Transl) Duncan, A.A.M., Edinburgh: Canongate.

Barrow, G. W. S. 1965. Robert Bruce and the Community of the Realm of Scotland, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press

Brooks, R. 2007. Cassell's Battlefields of Britain and Ireland, London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson

McLeod, A. G. 1961. The Battlefield of Loudoun Hill, 1307, Ayrshire Archaeol Natur Hist Collect, 2nd, 6: 241

Information on Sources & Publication

The battle of Loudoun Hill is not widely documented in either primary or secondary sources and no rigorous modern assessment of the battlefield has been attempted. The background to the conflict is illustrated by some contemporary sources, particularly the Scottish poet, John Barbour. As to reports of the battle action, the sources provide very little detail on specific actions taken by either side during the course of the fighting, though Barbour does provide an interesting insight into Bruce's preparation tactics of digging ditches on the site in advance of the battle. Perhaps unsurprisingly, this Scottish victory went unrecorded by the normally reliable English historians of the period, such as Peter Langtoft, the Lanercost Chronicle and the Scalacronica.

Primary Sources

Barbour, J. 1395 [1620]. The actes and life of the most victorious conquerour, Robert Bruce, King of Scotland Wherein also are contained the martiall deeds of the valiant princes, Edward Bruce, SyrIames Dowglas, Erle Thomas Randel, Walter Stewart, and sundrie others, Edinburgh: Andro Hart.

Barbour, J. 1395 [1997]. The Bruce, (Transl) Duncan, A.A.M., Edinburgh: Canongate.

Barbour, J. 1395 [1996]. The Bruce, (Transl) Eyre-Todd, G., Edinburgh: Mercat Press

Chronicle of Lanercost. 1272-1346. Translated, with notes by the Right Hon Sir Herbert Maxwell, Glasgow: James Maclehose& Sons (1913)

Fleming, G. J. M. 1934. The Bruce's Stone, Trans Dumfriesshire Galloway NaturHistAntiqSoc}, 3rd, Vol 18: 221-3

Guthrie, W. 1768. A General History of Scotland from the Earliest Accounts to the Present Time, London: A. Hamilton

John of Fordun's Chronicle of the Scottish Nation: The Historians of Scotland. Vol. IV. 1872. (Trans) F. J. H. Skene. (ed) W. F. Skene. Edinburgh: Edmonston& Douglas

Langtoft, P. Langtoft's Chronicle. 295, 297, 301, 305, 307, 309

Lawrie, G. 1791-99. The Statistical Account of Scotland: Parish of Loudoun (county of Ayr), 104-118

Macleod, N. 1834-45. The Statistical Account of Scotland: Presbytery of Irvine, Synod of Glasgow and Ayr, 834

Ordnance Survey (Name Book), Object Name Books of the Ordnance Survey, 1865

Robert of Brunne. 1725. Peter Langtoft's Chronicle (as illustrated and improv'd by Robert of Brunne).London: Samuel Bagster

Scalacronica, by Sir Thomas Gray of Heton, Knight: A history of England and Scotland from 1272 - 1363. 1836. Edinburgh: The Maitland Club

Stevenson, J. 1870. Documents Illustrative of the History of Scotland from the death of King Alexander the third to the accession of Robert Bruce. Edinburgh: HM General Register House

Cartographic & Illustrative Sources

No further information.

Secondary Sources

Barron, E.M. 1934. The Scottish War of Independence, New York: Barnes & Noble Books

Barrow, G.W.S. 1965. Robert Bruce and the Community of the Realm of Scotland, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press

Brooks, R. 2007. Cassell's Battlefields of Britain and Ireland, London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson

Dalrymple, D. Sir, 1776. The Annals of Scotland, Edinburgh: Balfour & Smellie for J. Murray, London

Duncan, A. A. M. 1992. The War of the Scots, 1306-23. Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 6th Ser .2: 125-51

McLeod, A G (1961) The battlefield of Loudoun Hill, 1307, Ayrshire Archaeol Natur Hist Collect, 2nd, 6: 241

Battle of Loudoun Hill Ballad.www.traditionalmusic.co.uk/song-midis/Battle_of_Loudoun_Hill.htm [Last accessed: 2 December 2011]

Loudoun Hill Stone. wwww.geograph.co.uk [Last accessed: 2 December 2011]

Loudoun Hill Visitor Centre. www.Loudounhillinn.com/page4.htm [Last accessed: 2 December 2011]

RCAHMS.Loudoun Hill.Site No. NS63 NW6 canmore.rcahms.gov.uk/en/site/44794/details/Loudoun+hill/ [Last accessed: 1 December 2011]

RCAHMS. Loudoun Hill Battle site.Site No. NS63 NW2 canmore.rcahms.gov.uk/en/site/44782/details/battle+of+Loudoun+hill/ [Last accessed: 1 December 2011]

RCAHMS.Loudoun Hill Roman Road. Site No. NS63 NW1 canmore.rcahms.gov.uk/en/site/44771/details/Loudoun+hill/ [Last accessed: 2 December 2011]

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