Scheduled Monument

Eileach-an-Naoimh, monastery, GarvellachsSM90138

Status: Designated

Documents

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Summary

Date Added
30/11/1981
Last Date Amended
03/07/2000
Type
Ecclesiastical: burial ground, cemetery, graveyard; monastery; monastic settlement; well, Secular: settlement, including deserted and depopulated and townships; settlement, including deserted and depopulated and townships
Local Authority
Argyll And Bute
Parish
Jura
NGR
NM 63956 9698
Coordinates
163956, 709698

Description

The monument consists of the extensive remains of a monastery originating in the pre-Norse period. The site is clearly very complex with a long building history but has never been excavated which makes the interrelationship between features difficult to assess.

The core of the site is a precinct on fairly flat ground which contains two church structures (one of stone and clay construction) a subterranean chamber and several other structures whose function and original form are thought to derive from the ancillary buildings needed for a small monastery. To the east is a substantial burial ground with graves formed as raised rectangular platforms.

To the east of this site are a pair of interconnecting bee-hive cells which are thought to be the oldest structures on the island. The highest part of this structure still stands to over 3.5m high.

There are numerous other structures between the core of the site and the natural boat-landing to the south: for example, cross bases and terracing, apparently designed to monumentalise the approach to the monastery.

To the SW of the core of the site an Early-Christian burial cairn, (known as Eithne's grave) with a cross-marked slab, occupies a natural terrace on the hill side. There is a second burial ground roughly 200m to the SW of the main site.

In addition to the features noted above, there are several features and remains which relate to post-medieval farming on the island, in particular a well preserved corn-drying kiln to the N of the site core, a barn, several alterations of the monastic remains and areas of rig and furrow.

The site is first recorded by John of Fordun who described it as a sanctuary. The site is clearly older than this but is thought to have been in virtually continuous use since its foundation in the Early Christian period. It is now thought that the site is likely to have been founded by St. Brendan the Navigator.

The area to be scheduled includes all the features noted above. It is defined to the SE by the high water mark and to the NW by the edge of the cliffs which run up the NW side of the island. To the NE and SW the area is defined by two lines running NW-SE.

The first runs 50m SW of the SW burial ground and the second 70m NE of the corn kiln. The area measures 510m from its northernmost to its southernmost point by 490m from its easternmost to its westernmost point and is marked in red on the accompanying map.

Statement of National Importance

The monument is of national importance because it is the best preserved Early-Christian monastery in Scotland, suffering from very little later encroachment. Located on what is now an uninhabited island, the structures have not been quarried and the archaeological deposits are likely to be well preserved. This site has the potential to enhance our understanding of the history of the introduction of Christianity to Scotland and the impact of subsequent events, in particular the Norse invasions and settlement.

References

Bibliography

RCAHMS records the monument as NM 61 SW 1.

Reference:

Bryce, T H and Knight, G A, 1934, Report On A Survey Of The Antiquities On Eileach An Naoimh, Trans Glasgow Archaeological Soc. 8 (1926-34), 62-102.

Historic Environment Scotland Properties

Eileach-an-Naoimh

https://www.historicenvironment.scot/visit-a-place/places/eileach-an-naoimh

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About Scheduled Monuments

Historic Environment Scotland is responsible for designating sites and places at the national level. These designations are Scheduled monuments, Listed buildings, Inventory of gardens and designed landscapes and Inventory of historic battlefields.

We make recommendations to the Scottish Government about historic marine protected areas, and the Scottish Ministers decide whether to designate.

Scheduling is the process that identifies, designates and provides statutory protection for monuments and archaeological sites of national importance as set out in the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979.

We schedule sites and monuments that are found to be of national importance using the selection guidance published in Designation Policy and Selection Guidance (2019)

Scheduled monument records provide an indication of the national importance of the scheduled monument which has been identified by the description and map. The description and map showing the scheduled area is the legal part of the scheduling. The statement of national importance and additional information provided are supplementary. These records are not definitive historical or archaeological accounts or a complete description of the monument(s).

The format of scheduled monument records has changed over time. Earlier records will usually be brief. Some information will not have been recorded and the map will not be to current standards. Even if what is described and what is mapped has changed, the monument is still scheduled.

Scheduled monument consent is required to carry out certain work, including repairs, to scheduled monuments. Applications for scheduled monument consent are made to us. We are happy to discuss your proposals with you before you apply and we do not charge for advice or consent. More information about consent and how to apply for it can be found on our website at www.historicenvironment.scot.

Find out more about scheduling and our other designations at www.historicenvironment.scot/advice-and-support. You can contact us on 0131 668 8914 or at designations@hes.scot.

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