Listed Building

The only legal part of the listing under the Planning (Listing Buildings and Conservation Areas) (Scotland) Act 1997 is the address/name of site. Addresses and building names may have changed since the date of listing – see 'About Listed Buildings' below for more information. The further details below the 'Address/Name of Site' are provided for information purposes only.

Address/Name of Site


Status: Designated


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Group Category Details
100000019 - See Notes
Date Added
Local Authority
West Lothian
Planning Authority
West Lothian
NT 03221 71218
303221, 671218


Hippolyte J Blanc, begun 1898, completed 1906. Near symmetrical butterfly-plan, gabled former hospital administration block and adjoining wards in restrained Scots Renaissance style comprising 2-storey and attic 5-bay central block with radiating single-storey wings with terminating gabled villas in former colony hospital complex. Situated on sloping site, facing S. Roughly coursed and snecked light sandstone with contrasting red ashlar margins. Some windows to wings breaking wallhead with piended roofs, shouldered gables and round-headed dormerheads. Some nepus gables. Some later single-storey and stairwell additions to rear (N).

S (PRINCIPAL) ELEVATION: symmetrical central block with slightly advanced central gabled bay and with further advanced outer bays with canted bay windows to ground with blocking courses. Base course, band courses, cornice. Central entrance doorway with moulded and corniced doorpiece; flanking small window openings. Bi-partite windows with stone mullions. Small flat-roofed roof dormers.

Single-storey wings to E and W with shouldered gables and some round-arched dormer heads. End pavilions, set at right angles with shouldered gables. Basement storeys to W and E.

N ELEVATION: asymmetrical with multiple roof heights and gables including 4-stage square-plan tower to centre.

Majority of windows boarded. Some 6- over 6-pane timber sash and case windows. Grey slates, terracotta ridge tiles. Corniced gable stacks. Raised skews.

INTERIOR: not seen (2011).

Statement of Special Interest

A Group with Bangour Village Hospital Former Memorial Church, Former Nurses' Home, Former Hospital Block with Wards 4, 5 & 6, Former Recreation Hall, Honeysuckle Cottage, Villas 7, 8, 9, & 10 and Villas 18, 19, 20 & 21 and Former Power Station Complex.

Bangour Village Hospital is the best surviving example in Scotland of a psychiatric hospital created in the village system of patient care, a revolutionary concept in the late 19th century. The administration and admission ward block of the former Bangour Village Hospital is one of the key buildings in the outstanding hospital complex and is situated in a prominent and central position within the site. The gabled, multi-height roofline of the building and unusual butterfly plan forms a well detailed and coherent structure as well as adding significantly to the overall village appearance of the site. The building has a number of decorative features, including the use of contrasting stone and a variety of dormer head styles.

The buildings of the hospital sit within their original rural setting and remain largely externally unaltered. This building was the administration and reception wards, where patients would been seen and assessed on their arrival. The administration block held offices, a board room, a dispensary and accommodation for 3 physicians.

Designed in a restrained Scots Renaissance style, Bangour Village Hospital is an outstanding remaining example of a psychiatric hospital built as a village and espousing a complete philosophy of care. The village system of patient care, exemplified by the Alt-Scherbitz hospital, near Leipzig in Germany in the 1870s encouraged psychiatric patients to be cared for within their own community setting, where there were few physical restrictions and where village self-sufficiency was encouraged. This was in contrast to the large contemporary asylum buildings. This philosophy had been gradually developing in a number of Scottish institutions, but Bangour saw its apotheosis, specifically in relation to psychiatric patients. Two other hospitals were built in Scotland for psychiatric patients, Kingseat, to the north of Aberdeen (built in 1904) and Dykebar Hospital in Paisley, 1909 (see separate listing). These have not survived as completely as Bangour.

The hospital was built by the well-known Edinburgh architect Hippolyte J Blanc as a result of a competition begun in 1898. The Edinburgh Lunacy Board had concluded that a new psychiatric hospital was required to cater for the increasing numbers of patients from Edinburgh and the hospital was opened in 1906, with some of the buildings still to be completed. It was designed with no external walls or gates. The utility buildings were positioned at the centre of the site, the medical buildings for patients requiring medical supervision and treatment were to the E and there were villas to the W of the site which could accommodate patients who required less supervision and were able to work at some sort of industry. The complex also included a farm to the NW (not part of current site) and had its own water and electricity systems and also had its own railway. The hospital was commissioned by the War Office in WWI for wounded soldiers and extra temporary structures were erected. Most of which were dismantled after the War although some timber ones were retained by the hospital. The railway too was dismantled in 1921. The patients returned in 1922. The hospital was commissioned again for WWII. At this time many temporary shelters were erected to the NW of the site and this became the basis of the Bangour General Hospital (now demolished). Bangour Village Hospital continued as a psychiatric hospital until 2004.

Hippolyte J Blanc (1844-1917) was an eminent and prolific Edinburgh-based architect who was perhaps best known for his Gothic revival churches. He was also a keen antiquarian and many of his buildings evoke an earlier Scottish style.

List description revised, 2012.

The Administration Building and Wards 1 & 2 was formerly listed at category A as part of a single listing covering Bangour Village Hospital. Category changed to B following listing review, 2012.



Photograph from West Lothian Archive, circa 1906 Ref D 14. Ordnance Survey Map, (1915). H J Blanc, 'Bangour Village Asylum' RIBA Journal, Vol XV, No10, 21 March 1908 pp308-326. J Keay, 'Bangour Village', Journal of Mental Science, April 1911, 57 pp408-411. J K and A M, 'Edinburgh War Hospital, Bangour', Edinburgh Medical Journal, March 1916 pp3-17. C McWilliam, Lothian, Buildings of Scotland, 1978 pf90. F Hendrie and D A D Macleod, The Bangour Story, 1991. Information from Dictionary of Scottish Architects (accessed 26-07-11).

About Listed Buildings

Historic Environment Scotland is responsible for designating sites and places at the national level. These designations are Scheduled monuments, Listed buildings, Inventory of gardens and designed landscapes and Inventory of historic battlefields.

We make recommendations to the Scottish Government about historic marine protected areas, and the Scottish Ministers decide whether to designate.

Listing is the process that identifies, designates and provides statutory protection for buildings of special architectural or historic interest as set out in the Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) (Scotland) Act 1997.

We list buildings which are found to be of special architectural or historic interest using the selection guidance published in Designation Policy and Selection Guidance (2019)

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These records are not definitive historical accounts or a complete description of the building(s). If part of a building is not described it does not mean it is not listed. The format of the listed building record has changed over time. Earlier records may be brief and some information will not have been recorded.

The legal part of the listing is the address/name of site which is known as the statutory address. Other than the name or address of a listed building, further details are provided for information purposes only. Historic Environment Scotland does not accept any liability for any loss or damage suffered as a consequence of inaccuracies in the information provided. Addresses and building names may have changed since the date of listing. Even if a number or name is missing from a listing address it will still be listed. Listing covers both the exterior and the interior and any object or structure fixed to the building. Listing also applies to buildings or structures not physically attached but which are part of the curtilage (or land) of the listed building as long as they were erected before 1 July 1948.

While Historic Environment Scotland is responsible for designating listed buildings, the planning authority is responsible for determining what is covered by the listing, including what is listed through curtilage. However, for listed buildings designated or for listings amended from 1 October 2015, legal exclusions to the listing may apply.

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Printed: 03/10/2023 01:36