Listed Building

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BANNOCKBURN, ROTUNDA, MEMORIAL CAIRN, FLAGPOLE AND STATUE OF KING ROBERT ILB49860

Status: Designated

Documents

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Summary

Category
A
Date Added
08/06/2004
Local Authority
Stirling
Planning Authority
Stirling
Parish
St Ninians
NGR
NS 79488 90691
Coordinates
279488, 690691

Description

Formalised architectural and landscape re-definition of the battle-site of Bannockburn (23-24 June 1314) made essentially for the 650th anniversary in 1964 of the Battle. The overall concept was by Sir Robert Matthew, the planted landscape scheme by H F Clark, with F R (Eric) Stevenson as project architect for the buildings (RCAHMS).

Matthew's concept envisaged a landscape scheme between the main (A9) road and the Borestone (the traditional site at which King Robert I raised his standard, and which had already been assigned a flagpole in 1870, a 120ft flagpole was erected by Dumbarton & Stirling Lodges [Groome] and the remains of the Borestone were incorporated into a cairn, built 1954 by the National Trust for Scotland),

beyond which would stand a statue of the King, by Charles d'Orville Pilkington Jackson. The route between the road and the Borestone would be marked by pathway and trees. The Borestone would be enclosed in an open circular structure, the Rotunda, formed out of concrete panels, and with an orientation building attached on one side. The form of the Rotunda was doubtless intended to echo Neolithic henge monuments, but also almost certainly draws inspiration from Gunnar Asplund's renowned Woodland Cemetery in Stockholm (1930s-1950s). It was evidently built in 1962-1964 without the orientation building (which was later built on a separate site, and is not included in this listing).

The Rotunda comprises a circular enclosure defined by a concrete-block wall topped by a prominent timber rail; some massive, almost powerful, rough boulders at the entrance bind the artificial to the natural landscape. The enclosure is open at two places, to orientate the visitor on their path, as the main ceremonial approach route changes direction at this point. The S opening gives views to the line of advance of Edward II's army and the N opening provides views to the statue and in the distance Stirling Castle, the army's objective.

The statue, one of Scotland's best-known post-war sculptures, was unveiled on Bannockburn day, 1964. It is a massive bronze figure of the King in light armour holding his battle-axe and astride his horse; all raised on a lofty white granite plinth.

Statement of Special Interest

The Bannockburn Heritage Centre (excluded from this listing) is a white harled block with rotunda designed by Wheeler & Sproson. Its shape echoes that of the Rotunda, which is accessed from the Heritage Centre by a tree lined avenue. The avenue is splayed to provide views of the statue and the Rotunda, which acts as a setting for the flagpole and memorial cairn. The equestrian statue of King Robert, which has become a national symbol, stands in a commanding site on high ground and was designed to face southwards towards Edward II's line of advance and block the approach to Stirling Castle. The monuments are cared for by the National Trust for Scotland.

References

Bibliography

Groome, F.Ordnance Gazetteer of Scotland, Vol 1 p.125; Information from RCAHMS Threatened Buildings and Topographical Survey; McKean, C. Stirling and the Trossachs (1994) p.62, 63; Gifford, J. and Walker, F. Stirling and Central Scotland (2002) p.751; Bannockburn Heritage Centre (2004); NTS (2004).

About Listed Buildings

Historic Environment Scotland is responsible for designating sites and places at the national level. These designations are Scheduled monuments, Listed buildings, Inventory of gardens and designed landscapes and Inventory of historic battlefields.

We make recommendations to the Scottish Government about historic marine protected areas, and the Scottish Ministers decide whether to designate.

Listing is the process that identifies, designates and provides statutory protection for buildings of special architectural or historic interest as set out in the Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) (Scotland) Act 1997.

We list buildings which are found to be of special architectural or historic interest using the selection guidance published in Designation Policy and Selection Guidance (2019)

Listed building records provide an indication of the special architectural or historic interest of the listed building which has been identified by its statutory address. The description and additional information provided are supplementary and have no legal weight.

These records are not definitive historical accounts or a complete description of the building(s). If part of a building is not described it does not mean it is not listed. The format of the listed building record has changed over time. Earlier records may be brief and some information will not have been recorded.

The legal part of the listing is the address/name of site which is known as the statutory address. Addresses and building names may have changed since the date of listing. Even if a number or name is missing from a listing address it will still be listed. Listing covers both the exterior and the interior and any object or structure fixed to the building. Listing also applies to buildings or structures not physically attached but which are part of the curtilage (or land) of the listed building as long as they were erected before 1 July 1948.

While Historic Environment Scotland is responsible for designating listed buildings, the planning authority is responsible for determining what is covered by the listing, including what is listed through curtilage. However, for listed buildings designated or for listings amended from 1 October 2015, legal exclusions to the listing may apply.

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