Listed Building

The only legal part of the listing is the address/name of site. Addresses and building names may have changed since the date of listing – see ‘About Listed Buildings’ below for more information.

The Old Toll Cottage, Dinwoodie, near LockerbieLB3327

Status: Designated

Documents

There are no additional online documents for this record.

Summary

Category
B
Date Added
03/08/1971
Last Date Amended
15/12/2016
Local Authority
Dumfries And Galloway
Planning Authority
Dumfries And Galloway
Parish
Applegarth
NGR
NY 10430 90151
Coordinates
310430, 590151

Description

A single-storey, 3-bay, rectangular-plan former toll bar cottage, built in 1822-23 by mason John MacDonald to designs by the civil engineer and architect, Thomas Telford as part of his Carlisle to Glasgow road improvements (1820-1825). The cottage is constructed of squared and tooled sandstone ashlar, painted white, with raised quoins and window margins. The east (road-facing) elevation has a bowed bay to the right with an iron lamp bracket above a timber door which is flanked by two windows. The north elevation has three windows in round-arched surrounds and the central window is the largest. It has a shallow piended roof with broad eaves and exposed rafter ends. There is a central chimney stack pierced by a gothic quatrefoil opening and it has four clay cans. There is a slightly lower outshot to the south elevation, also with a piended roof.

The windows are mostly a 4-pane glazing pattern in timber sash and case frames. The roofs are slated and the rainwater goods are cast iron.

The interior was not seen in 2016. Photographs taken in 2016 show timber panelling to the front porch recess and a timber-lined segmental arch above one internal doorway.

Statement of Special Interest

The Old Toll Cottage at Dinwoodie is a largely unaltered example of an early 19th century toll-bar cottage, built to a standard design by the eminent civil engineer, Thomas Telford. The cottage was built to serve an important early 19th century road from Glasgow to Carlisle, now a local access road. The cottage has a number of distinguishing features including the bowed front and pierced chimney stack. It is the least altered of the three listed toll houses by Telford on the former Glasgow to Carlisle road.

Age and Rarity

The Old Toll Cottage at Dinwoodie was built between 1822 and 1823. The rectangular-plan footprint of the property, with bowed bay on the east elevation and an outshot to the south elevation, is evident on the 1st Edition Ordnance Survey map (surveyed 1864, published 1867).

During the 18th century, the road between Glasgow and Carlisle was funded by public subscription and controlled by the Turnpike Trusts. As mercantile Glasgow continued to expand, the need to improve the mail route between Glasgow and England became a necessity. In the early 19th century, works were carried out using a Parliament grant of £50000, by the nationally important civil engineer and architect Thomas Telford in his capacity as Engineer to the Highland Roads and Bridges Commission. Tolls were also considered necessary to fund the maintenance of the roads. A physical barrier or toll-bar across a road or a bridge was raised when the toll was paid. These toll bars were usually accompanied by a purpose-built dwelling to house the operator. Telford s assistant William Provis surveyed the Glasgow to Carlisle route in 1814-15, with the agreed works implemented by 1825. The new road constructed by Telford was 69 miles long, improving sections of the earlier Roman Road covering the same route. According to Telford s biographer, Samuel Smiles, it was probably the finest piece of road which up to that time had been made (Smiles, p.247).

The tollbar cottages ceased to operate after the passing of the Roads and Bridges (Scotland) Act in 1878. Telford s road was bypassed fully by the B7076 and the 6-lane A74(M) during the 20th century.

In our current knowledge, seventeen Telford bridges and three of eight toll-bar cottages survive on Telford s Glasgow to Carlisle route. The eight toll houses along the route were at Hamilton, Lesmahagow, Abingdon, Douglas Mill, Beattock, Dinwoodie, Gretna and Kingsmuir. All are understood to have featured bowed porch fronts. The examples at Hamilton (LB12517) and Gretna (LB9943) are listed.

The Old Toll Cottage at Dinwoodie is a good example of a former toll-bar cottage, built to a standard design by Thomas Telford, and associated with an important early 19th century road development. The cottage has a number of distinguishing architectural features and is the least altered of the three listed toll houses by Telford on the former Glasgow to Carlisle road.

Architectural or Historic Interest

Interior

The interior was not seen in 2016. Sales particulars produced for the sale of the property in July 2016 and photographs from the owner show that the hall, living room, kitchen and bedrooms have few fixtures or fittings relating to the building s early 19th century date of construction. All fireplaces are later replacements.

Plan form

The small-scale, rectangular plan form with a bowed frontage is typical of a toll house of this date. Information from the 2016 sales particulars and 2016 planning application, indicates that the early 19th century room layout has not been altered.

Technological excellence or innovation, material or design quality

The building is built in good quality squared sandstone and has some early 19th century toll cottage features such as the bow-fronted entrance. The round-arch window openings, shallow roof, quatrefoil piercing to the chimney stack and raised quoins framing the principal elevation are all characteristic of the style of domestic architecture produced by Thomas Telford during that period.

Telford was Scotland s greatest civil engineer of the late 18th and early 19th centuries, renowned for his ability to solve complex problems. His work started with surveys for the British Fisheries Society of harbours and piers for the fishing fleets, followed by surveys of more than 1000 miles of road, with 17 large bridges and over 1000 minor bridges built to his designs.

Setting

The cottage stands within its own plot of land, largely surrounded by trees, beside a truncated section of the former Glasgow to Carlisle road. This is now a cul-de-sac for local access traffic. The toll bar itself that would have accompanied the cottage no longer exists.

The immediate setting of the cottage, particularly the proximity of its bowed entrance to the road evidences the original function of the cottage and in turn, aids our understanding of road communication in Scotland during the 19th century.

Regional variations

There are no known regional variations.

Close Historical Associations

This cottage is built to a standard design by Thomas Telford, a civil engineer of national importance and is associated with a historically significant road improvement scheme of the early 19th century, also by him.

Change of category from B to A 22/02/1988

Statutory address, category of listing changed from A to B and listed building record revised in 2016. Previously listed as Old Tollbar Cottage at Dinwoodie .

References

Bibliography

Canmore: http://canmore.org.uk/ CANMORE ID: 214914

Maps

Ordnance Survey (surveyed 1857, published 1861) Dumfries, Sheet XXXIII.16 (Applegarth). 25 inch to the mile. 1st Edition. Southampton: Ordnance Survey.

Archives

National Records of Scotland. Plan showing portions of present mail and other roads and proposed new lines of road between Carlisle and Edinburgh. RHP1913.

Printed Sources

Gifford, J. (1996) The Buildings of Scotland: Dumfries and Galloway. London: Penguin Books Ltd. p.352.

Paxton, R. and Shipway, J. (2007) Civil Engineering Heritage: Scotland - Lowlands and Borders London: Thomas Telford Publishers, p.46-7.

Smiles, S. (1867) The Life of Thomas Telford, Civil Engineer. London: John Murray, pp.246-249.

Online Sources

Internet Archive: Smiles, S. (1867) The Life of Thomas Telford, Civil Engineer at https://archive.org/details/cu31924031188802 [accessed 09/11/2016]

Dictionary of Scottish Architects. Thomas Telford at

http://www.scottisharchitects.org.uk/architect_full.php?id=202777 [accessed 09/11/2016].

About Listed Buildings

Historic Environment Scotland is responsible for designating sites and places at the national level. These designations are Scheduled monuments, Listed buildings, Inventory of gardens and designed landscapes and Inventory of historic battlefields.

We make recommendations to the Scottish Government about historic marine protected areas, and the Scottish Ministers decide whether to designate.

Listing is the process that identifies, designates and provides statutory protection for buildings of special architectural or historic interest as set out in the Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) (Scotland) Act 1997.

We list buildings which are found to be of special architectural or historic interest using the selection guidance published in Designation Policy and Selection Guidance (2019)

Listed building records provide an indication of the special architectural or historic interest of the listed building which has been identified by its statutory address. The description and additional information provided are supplementary and have no legal weight.

These records are not definitive historical accounts or a complete description of the building(s). If part of a building is not described it does not mean it is not listed. The format of the listed building record has changed over time. Earlier records may be brief and some information will not have been recorded.

The legal part of the listing is the address/name of site which is known as the statutory address. Addresses and building names may have changed since the date of listing. Even if a number or name is missing from a listing address it will still be listed. Listing covers both the exterior and the interior and any object or structure fixed to the building. Listing also applies to buildings or structures not physically attached but which are part of the curtilage (or land) of the listed building as long as they were erected before 1 July 1948.

While Historic Environment Scotland is responsible for designating listed buildings, the planning authority is responsible for determining what is covered by the listing, including what is listed through curtilage. However, for listed buildings designated or for listings amended from 1 October 2015, legal exclusions to the listing may apply.

If part of a building is not listed, it will say that it is excluded in the statutory address and in the statement of special interest in the listed building record. The statement will use the word 'excluding' and quote the relevant section of the 1997 Act. Some earlier listed building records may use the word 'excluding', but if the Act is not quoted, the record has not been revised to reflect subsequent legislation.

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Printed: 25/05/2019 06:21