Inventory Garden & Designed Landscape

CRIMONMOGATEGDL00397

Status: Designated

Documents

Where documents include maps, the use of this data is subject to terms and conditions (https://portal.historicenvironment.scot/termsandconditions).

Summary

Date Added
30/06/2011
Local Authority
Aberdeenshire
Parish
Lonmay
NGR
NK 3759 58491
Coordinates
403759, 858491

Crimonmogate contains an outstanding collection of architectural features, most notably Crimonmogate House, by Archibald Simpson. The polices are currently undergoing a long-term programme of renewal, with planting and thinning projects improving the quality of the woodland resource and adding to the range of tree and shrub specimens in the vicinity of the house.

Type of Site

A well-defined, classic earlier 19th-century designed landscape, with parks and high-quality estate buildings sheltered by attractive policy woodlands.

Main Phases of Landscape Development

1820s-60s

Importance of Site

A site included in the Inventory is assessed for its condition and integrity and for its level of importance. The criteria used are set out in Annex 5 of the Scottish Historic Environment Policy (December 2011). The principles are represented by the following value-based criteria and we have assigned a value for each on a scale ranging from outstanding value to no value. Criteria not applicable to a particular site have been omitted. All sites included in the Inventory are considered to be of national importance.

Work of Art

Value
High

Crimonmogate retains its historic design structure and attracted significant praise in the 19th century for its mansion house, woodlands and gardens.

Historical

Value
High

The 1776 estate plan and vignette by Sangster provides a valuable snapshot of the estate landscape shortly before the development of the present design. Other privately held documentary and cartographic sources, including an estate plan of 1834, contribute further value in this category.

Horticultural, Arboricultural, Silvicultural

Value
High

Impressive trees within the core policies include a veteran horse chestnut and a thriving wych elm. Further interest derives from the variety of oak and maple specimens recently planted in the park around the monument. A programme of renewal initiated by the present owners aims to re-establish the dominance of broadleaf trees in the woodlands and remove ageing Sitka spruce plantations.

Architectural

Value
Outstanding

The lawns, parks, woods and lake provide the setting for Crimonmogate House, recognised for its exceptional architectural merit. Adding further value in this category are a high number of other notable estate buildings and structures, such as the sundial, monument and stable block.

Scenic

Value
High

The attractive woodland canopy makes a significant contribution to the coastal agricultural landscape in this part of Banff and Buchan. Perimeter estate buildings, including the lodges, mill and bridge add further scenic interest.

Nature Conservation

Value
High

The policy woodlands, burns and lake represent diverse habitats for nature conservation. Recent and ongoing efforts to thin and renew broadleaf cover will enhance this value. The designed landscape also abuts the Loch of Strathbeg, designated for its national and international importance (Sitelink 2010).

Archaeological

Value
Some

Some archaeological interest derives from the site of a cist, excavated at the end of the 19th century. Otherwise, value in this category derives largely from the potential for future survey or investigation to reveal further information about the landscape over time.

Location and Setting

Crimonmogate is a relatively small designed landscape set within the flat, coastal farmland at the extreme north-east of Banff and Buchan. It is located approximately 5.5 miles (9 km) south east of Fraserburgh, and sits due west of the Loch of Strathbeg; the largest waterbody in the north-east lowlands, and the largest dune lake in Britain. The loch and its margins are of national and international importance in terms of nature habitat value, and are protected by a number of natural heritage designations (SiteLink 2010). Minor burns within the slightly higher ground of Crimonmogate drain towards Strathbeg, and also feed the artificial lake to the north of the policies. In general, views within the designed landscape are contained within the policies. The house occupies a central location, overlooking lawns and the park to the south, while ample woodlands around the designed landscape core and perimeter create a secluded and private feel to the grounds. The designed landscape encompasses an area of 146ha (361ac.), bounded by the B9033 road to the west, a minor road to the east, and the A90 to the south.

Site History

The designed landscape owes its present form to a major phase of earlier 19th-century landscaping, building and planting projects. These transformed the centre of a large agricultural estate into a suitably picturesque and fashionable setting for the new mansion house of Crimonmogate, designed by Archibald Simpson in c.1825. Historical maps and accounts suggest that prior to this time, there were no designed pleasure grounds of any great significance (Roy 1747-55; NAS RHP13296; Stat. Acc 1792; New Stat. Acc. 1845).

Crimonmogate had formerly been part of the landed estate of the prosperous Earls of Errol from the 15th century onwards (Cumine 1888: 117; Callander 1987: 52-3). While the Earls remained significant landowners in Aberdeenshire during the 18th century, their declining fortunes may have prompted the sale of the estate to the Abernethy family in the 1730s. One of the most useful sources for the nature of the landscape during this era is the large-scale plan of Crimonmogate by J. Sangster, dated 1776, which shows a large, treeless estate landscape of fields, steadings, mills and track-ways, with an accompanying vignette illustrating 'A South Perspective View of the Mansionhouse, Offices & Part of the Gardens etc. of Crimonmogat (sic)' (NAS RHP13296). Apart from the 3-bay, 3-storey lairds house, which was subsequently removed, other elements of the vignette illustration (dovecot, steading and garden wall) can still be identified within the present designed landscape.

Over the next one hundred years the landscape underwent a more radical change. By the late 18th century, Crimonmogate had been acquired by the Milne family, and it was probably the wealth generated by Patrick Milne through business enterprises overseas which funded subsequent projects (Crimonmogate House, www.cmg-events.com). Improvement-period techniques of drainage and land reclamation began to make an impact on the parish landscape during this time (New Stat. Acc. 1845: 236), and by 1811, the Board of Agriculture reported that 'Crimonmogate has no wood; but is distinguished by the best stone walls, round its inclosures, that are to be found in the county, on so large a scale' (1811: 629). When Milne died in 1820, leaving Crimonmogate to his relation, Charles Bannerman, negotiations were already underway for a new mansion-house to be designed and executed by the Aberdeen architect, Archibald Simpson (1790-1847).

Charles Bannerman clearly took up the reigns in earnest, and over the next 30 years, Crimonmogate was transformed through an ambitious programme of works that also included the development of woodland plantations and parkland, drives and entrance lodges, a new walled garden, and a new suite of estate buildings, many of which were also designed by Simpson. His son, Alexander Bannerman, continued development work in the 1860s, and commissioned the extensive remodelling of the house. With this investment of labour and money, Crimonmogate matured into a classic, Victorian designed landscape that attracted praise in contemporary accounts. The revised edition of a mid 19th-century guide to Buchan comments on grounds 'well-sheltered by wood', and which possessed 'excellent gardens, laid out with much taste' (Pratt 1901). In these gardens, apprentices learned their trade under the guidance of an experienced head gardener (recollections in The Gardeners' Chronicle 1924: 384 and 1925: 455), while the resulting produce won prizes in county exhibitions (The Gardeners' Chronicle 1897: 407).

By the close of the 19th century, ownership had passed by marriage to the Carnegie family. They retained Crimonmogate for a further century, and still own a small burial plot within the grounds. Although the 20th century witnessed the dispersal of the former estate, a gradual deterioration in the condition of the grounds, and the establishment of some hard-edged Sitka Spruce plantations, the decline was halted towards the end of the century. In 1997, the former owners expressed the hope of restoring the house and policies to the original, early 19th-century design, and made some headway in clearing invasive vegetation and stumps from around the house (Monckton 1997: 4).

Crimonmogate was sold in 2001 to the present owners. Since then, they have been engaged in rolling out a sustained, long-term programme of landscape renewal, which includes the phased removal of the conifer stands, the thinning of woodlands to promote ground flora, and the plantation of new specimens and shrubs in the grounds immediately around the house. While remaining a private residence, Crimonmogate is also let out as a venue for weddings, corporate events and garden parties, (Crimonmogate House, www.cmg-events.co.uk).

Landscape Components

Architectural Features

Crimonmogate House, by Archibald Simpson c.1825, is a neo-classical, ashlar granite mansion of two storeys. It features a pedimented, Doric-columned portico at the centre of the principal south front, and is flanked by two projecting wings. The original proportions of the house were radically altered in the 1860s with the addition of a prominent mansard roof with round-headed dormer windows. The designed landscape contains a good number of notable, earlier 19th-century estate buildings, mostly located due west of the house. Of these, the old laundry and single storey, octagonal dairy are both attributed to Archibald Simpson, c.1825. Simpson also designed the remodelled north front of the mid 18th-century, quadrangular stable block, with its neo-Greek octagonal louvre, and is credited with the design of two of the entrance lodges - the S.E Lodge, and the Gardener's Lodge, both single storey, white-washed rubble structures, also of c.1825. The North Lodge, meanwhile, is a slightly later, mid 19th-century, 2-storey structure.

Immediately to the south of the stable block is a plain, curved rubble garden wall with an early 19th-century consoled doorpiece, while just north of Crimonmogate House is a single-storey, rubble-built game larder, c.1825. The Crimonmogate House monument to the east of the house was erected in 1821 by Charles Bannerman to the memory of Patrick Milne. Comprising a square granite obelisk mounted on a 3-step base, it also features later memorials to Bannerman family members. A rustic-style boathouse with partially thatched walls stands on the east-shore of the lake. Older surviving features within the designed landscape include the late 18th-century, circular sundial, with the initials PM for Patrick Milne, and the attractive mid 18th-century octagonal dovecot with potence, located in woodland by the west drive.

Further architectural features of note are located towards the perimeter of the policies. To the south-west, they include the substantial rubble wall of the large, former walled garden, built sometime between 1834-52, and the 19th-century kennels and kennels house. To the south-east, they comprise the former Mill of Crimonmogate, possibly also by Simpson c.1825, and the nearby single-storey, U-plan Mill of Crimonmogate farmhouse, which may have been adapted from an earlier structure in the first half of the 19th century. To the north, a humped, single-arched, rubble-built estate bridge of probable early 19th-century date leads over the Burn of Logie towards the S.E. Lodge. Well-preserved ha has encircle the parks, ensuring uninterrupted views, while the partially canalised burn that flows eastwards through the centre of the policies features culverts and small bridges, and signs that it has been manipulated to flow via small rills and cascades.

Drives & Approaches

The three main drives of Crimonmogate were almost certainly established in the first half of the 19th century together with the execution of the entrance lodges and other key works on the estate. The longest of the three approaches enters from the west via the Gardener's Lodge and west gate. Originally intended as the principal carriage drive, it sweeps through bluebell woods towards Crimonmogate House, affording glimpses of adjacent parks, and the 18th-century dovecot. The shorter, secondary east drive is now the most commonly used approach. Entering the policies at the S.E. Lodge near Millhill, it also curves past parkland and through woods before arriving at the gravel forecourt of the house. The straight north drive leads directly to the stable block, and was intended as a more functional service drive.

The early OS editions reveal other, former 19th-century routes in and around the policies. They show woodland paths leading through the perimeter woodlands and Savoch Wood to the north (1864-71 OS 25”; 1899-1901 OS 25”). By the end of the 19th century, these had been complemented by a new drive running northwards from the east side of the house to the lake, and an intricate path at the north of the lake leading from the banks onto the islands via a series of five footbridges (1899-1901 OS 25”).

Parkland

The early 19th-century landscape design encompassed three areas of open parkland. Stretching outwards from the core of the designed landscape, but contained and secluded by the perimeter woodlands, these parks were designed to be seen from the approaches and from Crimonmogate House. During the late 19th and 20th century, the eastern park was subdivided by a further drive and later small plantations. Although the former parks are now cultivated, and have lost the smattering of individual specimen trees depicted during the 19th century (1864-71 OS 25”; 1899-1901 OS 25”), they retain their essential structure, their well-preserved ha has, and the striking clump of trees in the northern park. A further mature, circular island clump in the southern park also lends structure and depth to views across this part of the policies.

In the former park grounds to the east of the house, view-inhibiting, tall stands of Sitka spruce have recently been removed, thus restoring the setting of Crimonmogate monument. New specimen tree planting includes a range of different oak and maple saplings, while pairs of limes now define an avenue to the monument.

Woodland

The mixed broadleaf woodlands comprise one of the most dominant and attractive landscape elements of Crimonmogate. They were originally planted during the earlier-mid 19th century by the Bannermans and attracted praise in subsequent written accounts that noted the contrast between the former treeless landscape of the parish in the 18th century, and the 'well-grown hardwood trees…thriving young plantations, and fine, well-kept beech hedges' of the Victorian estate (Smith 1874: 288; see also Banffshire Journal1865: 41; New Stat. Acc. 1845: 221). Today, the 19th-century plantation structure remains intact, and comprises perimeter woods and central policy woodlands of beech, sycamore and lime. The stands of Sitka spruce planted during the 20th century, and which altered the park-woodland aesthetic, are now being gradually removed through a long-term programme of woodland management designed to restore the original broadleaf species mix. As the seasons change at Crimonmogate, the woodland floor is carpeted first by snowdrops, then daffodils, followed by an impressive display of bluebells and forget-me-nots in late spring (Crimonmogate House, www.cmg-events.co.uk).

Water Features

The principal water feature is the long, artificial lake located towards the north of the designed landscape. Thought to be established during the lifetime of Alexander Bannerman around the mid-19th century (Sale Particulars 2000), it represents an ambitious project in terms of both engineering and labour. Stakes pinning the banks are still visible in some locations (W. Stanhope pers. comm. 2009). It was furnished with the boat-house on the east bank, while by the close of the century, paths and footbridges led across the small islands created close to the north bank (1864-71 OS 25”; 1899-1901 OS 25”). Clearly intended for both leisure pursuits and a picturesque aesthetic, the lake remains an attractive feature in the present designed landscape and work is currently underway to remove remaining stands of Sitka spruce, open up views, and to restore the Victorian loch-side path.

The Gardens

There are several garden areas in the immediate vicinity of Crimonmogate House, restored and developed in the first decade of the 21st century by the present owners. A small formal garden occupies the site of the 19th-century terrace along the eastern elevation of the house. Incorporating older features such as the raised and level lawn terrace, stone steps and the main path leading eastwards from the house, (1899-1901, OS 25”), it is now defined by new box and yew hedges, which divide the lawn into compartments, and pairs of white flowering cherries, which line and ornament the path. The Victorian conservatory on the north wall was demolished in the early 1970s (1899-1901, OS 25”; Monckton 1997: 12). At the main front of Crimonmogate House, a short avenue runs southward. Opened up in the late 20th century, it has more recently been planted with an avenue of Harrington plum yew saplings (Cephalotaxus harringtonia 'Korean gold'). In the adjacent lawns, other new saplings and rhododendrons have been introduced among the older trees, which include a thriving Wych elm and a veteran horse chestnut, a probable rare survivor of the 18th century landscape.

Walled Gardens

To the west of the house, and just south of the stable block, is a curving, south-facing, plain rubble garden wall. Depicted on the 1834 estate survey plan, it is either the successor, or the same wall as that shown on Sangster's vignette and plan of 1776 when it formed the northern boundary of a traditional productive walled garden, divided into quadrants with paths, and with trained fruit trees (NAS RHP13296). Following the reorganisation of the landscape in the earlier 19th century, and the construction of the new, larger walled garden to the south-west of the policies, this older garden probably acquired a more ornamental character. Today, shrubs and fruit trees are grown along the sheltering wall, while the remainder is grassed.

The other walled garden is in separate ownership and now contains a late 20th-century private residence. The rubble and partially brick-lined wall was originally constructed sometime between 1834-52, and defines a large, irregular area of ground. The early OS editions indicate that it once contained a glasshouse, while a useful water supply came from the canalised burn, channelled via culverts into and out of the garden (1864-71 OS 25”; 1899-1901, OS 25”). The wall remains a striking architectural feature in this part of the designed landscape.

References

Bibliography

Maps, Plans and Archives

c.1583-96 Timothy Pont, Buchan

1747-55 General Roy's Military Survey

1776 George Taylor and Andrew Skinner, G.Taylor & A.Skinner's survey and maps of the roads of N.Britain or Scotland

1820 John Thomson, Northern Part of Aberdeen & Banff Shires

1822 James Robertson, Topographical and military map of the counties of Aberdeen, Banff and Kincardine

1858 Alexander Gibb, Map of the north eastern districts of Aberdeen

1864-71 survey Aberdeenshire, 1st edition OS 1:2500 (25”) and 1:10,560 (6”), published 1872

1899-1901 survey Aberdeenshire, 2nd edition OS 1:2500 (25”) and 1:10,560 (6”), published 1902

NAS RHP13296 Photographs (4) of estate plan of the lands of Crimonmogate, by J Sangster 1776, (Original measures 8' x 31/2') with vignette of mansion house and gardens of Crimonmogate.

Sale particulars 2000, Knight Frank: Crimonmogate, Lonmay, Fraserburgh, Aberdeenshire: Edinburgh

RCAHMS: National Monuments Record of Scotland (NMRS) and photographic and manuscript collections

Sources

Printed Sources

Banffshire Journal 1865, Description of Formartine & Buchan Railway : with map of the line, lithographs of Brucklay Castle, Fraserburgh, and Peterhead, and wood engravings of Ellon, Ellon Castle, Strichen House, Strichen Town-House, Cairness House, and Crimonmogate, Banffshire Journal Office: Banff

Board of Agriculture (London) 1811, A general view of the agriculture of Aberdeenshire / drawn up under the direction of the Board of Agriculture; and illustrated with plates [and a map]. By George Skene Keith, D. Chalmers & Co. for A. Brown: Aberdeen

McKean, C. 1990, Banff and Buchan, Royal Incorporation of Architects in Scotland: Edinburgh

Monckton, C 1997, The First Year: A report to the Trustees of the Crimonmogate House Trust on progress with the restoration of the House and policies, Unpublished report, copy held by Historic Scotland

Pratt, John B. 1901, Buchan, 4th ed., revised by R. Anderson, L. Smith & Son: Aberdeen

Smith, A. 1874, 'On Aberdeenshire woods, forests and forestry', in Transactions of the Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland, 6, 264-303

The Builder 1847, 'The late Mr Archibald Simpson', 221, 217

The Gardener's Chronicle 1897, 'Exhibition of Chrysanthemums-Aberdeen, Nov. 1897', Dec 4, 1897

The Gardener's Chronicle 1924, Correspondence, June 21, 1924

The Gardener's Chronicle 1925, Correspondence, Dec. 5, 1924

The New Statistical Account of Scotland 1845, Statistical Account of the Parish of Lonmay, vol.12, Edinburgh, 215-36

The Statistical Account of Scotland 1792, Statistical Account of the Parish of Lonmay, vol. 16, Edinburgh, 631-36

Internet Sources

Crimonmogate, Lonmay, Fraserburgh, Aberdeenshire, www.cmg-events.co.uk [accessed April 2010]

Historic Scotland on behalf of Scottish Ministers, The Lists of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historical Interest, HB9270, HB13718, HB9241, HB 9242, HB 9243, HB 9246, HB9248, HB9252, HB9240, HB9245, HB9249, HB9250, HB9251, HB9244, HB9247, HB9254, HB6738, HB9253, HB3043, 9266 www.historic-scotland.gov.uk/index/heritage/historicandlistedbuildings.htm, [accessed April 2010]

SiteLink: Scottish Natural Heritage, Sites designated for their natural heritage value, www.snh.org.uk/snhi/ [accessed April 2010]

Note of Abbreviations used in references

NAS: National Archives of Scotland

RCAHMS: Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland

About the Inventory of Gardens and Designed Landscapes

Historic Environment Scotland is responsible for the designation of buildings, monuments, gardens and designed landscapes and historic battlefields. We also advise Scottish Ministers on the designation of historic marine protected areas.

The inventory is a list of Scotland's most important gardens and designed landscapes. We maintain the inventory under the terms of the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979.

We add sites of national importance to the inventory using the criteria published in the Historic Environment Scotland Policy Statement.

The information in the inventory record gives an indication of the national importance of the site(s). It is not a definitive account or a complete description of the site(s). The format of records has changed over time. Earlier records may be brief and some information will not have been recorded.

Enquiries about development proposals, such as those requiring planning permission, on or around inventory sites should be made to the planning authority. The planning authority is the main point of contact for all applications of this type.

Find out more about the inventory of gardens and designed landscapes and our other designations at www.historicenvironment.scot. You can contact us on 0131 668 8716 or at designations@hes.scot.

Images

There are no images available for this record, you may want to check Canmore for images relating to CRIMONMOGATE

There are no images available for this record.

Search Canmore

Printed: 20/11/2018 16:26