Inventory Garden & Designed Landscape

WEMYSS CASTLEGDL00384

Status: Designated

Documents

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Summary

Date Added
31/03/2005
Local Authority
Fife
Parish
Wemyss
NGR
NT 32255 95208
Coordinates
332255, 695208

A coastal 18th-19th century landscape park overlying an earlier formal landscape associated with the 15th century West Wemyss Castle and Chapel tower-house. The picturesque character and structure survives today, and the site has a long history of gardening, including the involvement of the influential designers John Nicol, his son Walter Nicol and Thomas White Jnr.

No site survey was carried out and the entry is based on information held in the public domain.

Type of Site

Coastal 18th-19th century landscape park overlying an earlier formal landscape associated with the 15th century West Wemyss Castle and Chapel tower-house.

Main Phases of Landscape Development

Pre-18th century, 1705-20, 1789-1822.

Importance of Site

A site included in the Inventory is assessed for its condition and integrity and for its level of importance. The criteria used are set out in Annex 5 of the Scottish Historic Environment Policy (December 2011). The principles are represented by the following value-based criteria and we have assigned a value for each on a scale ranging from outstanding value to no value. Criteria not applicable to a particular site have been omitted. All sites included in the Inventory are considered to be of national importance.

Work of Art

Value
High

As an example of White's work, Wemyss Castle has high value as a Work of Art. There is no information on which to make a further assessment.

Historical

Value
Outstanding

Wemyss Castle's early history and its connection with David 2nd Earl Wemyss are important. Its 19th-20th century history is an outstanding example of industrial wealth funding population growth and settlement history in the west Fife coalfields.

Horticultural, Arboricultural, Silvicultural

Value
None

There is no information on which to make an assessment.

Architectural

Value
Outstanding

Wemyss Castle is of outstanding architectural interest in its own right. This quality is paralleled by an outstanding range of ancillary and estate buildings, many representative of the 19th century period but with other earlier architectural elements of high interest.

Scenic

Value
Outstanding

The designed landscape forms a vital coastal landscape between the settlements of East and West Wemyss.

Nature Conservation

Value
None

There is no information on which to make an assessment.

Archaeological

Value
Outstanding

The archaeology of the area is complex and ranges through from prehistoric sites to industrial monuments.

Location and Setting

Wemyss Castle park extends across coastal hills directly north-west of West Wemyss; the policies lie south of the A955 Kirkcaldy-Methil road, stretching between East Wemyss and West Wemyss. Coaltown of Wemyss lies on its north-west boundary.

An enclosed park at Wemyss extended along the coast from 'Weems Town' (West Wemyss) to the Chemyss Burn by the early-mid 1700s (Moll 1745). By 1775, the park was well delimited by perimeter planting alongside the West Wemyss to East Wemyss road (Ainslie 1775). By the early 19th century a public road north of the Castle, dividing it from the 'orchard', had been transformed into a tree-lined drive. Wooded pleasure grounds lay to the south-east of the Castle and an ornamental parkland approach led to West Wemyss. Outer areas of the policies were planted with serpentine perimeter belts and clumps (Sharp, Greenwood and Fowler 1828). The extent of the designed landscape remains unchanged.

Site History

The name 'Wemyss' derived from 'uamh' ('weem') refers to the caves in the sea-cliffs along the shore. These have long had various uses. In 1929, rock carvings, including cup-and-ring markings ascribed to the Bronze Age, and medieval pottery, were uncovered in Michael Cave when new boilers for the Michael Colliery were installed over the cave. The Glass Cave, also containing rock carvings, was used in the 17th century as a place of glass production. Coastal activity within the Wemyss policies is reflected in the discovery (in 1932) of a medieval cross-slab overlying a rocky cavity in the shore, some 100 yards below high-water mark near the Castle. Left in situ, the cross slab thereafter was covered by spoil from nearby colliery workings (RCAHMS).

The history and development of West Wemyss village and the Wemyss estate have been directed by the Wemyss family since the 12th century when they were first mentioned to 'claim descent from the Celtic kings and Thanes of Fife' (Geddie 1923, p.55-6). By 1423, Sir John Wemyss of Reres had a castle at Wester Wemyss, separate from the manor of Easter Wemyss (as agreements between him and Livingstone of Easter Wemyss indicate). Exploitation of the productive coal measures commenced by at least 1428 (Cameron and Johnstone 1995).

Sir David Wemyss (killed at Flodden, 1513) succeeded to the estate in 1508. He acquired a charter of barony from James IV in 1511, with the Castle 'assigned as the principal messuage of the barony…and the power to erect a new Haven' at the town of Wemyss. This refers to the Castle, also noted in various documentary references as 'The Wemyss', 'Wester Wemyss' or 'The Hall of Wemyss'. Early 16th century work on the Castle may date to his activities, when it was extended (Gifford 1992, p.424). It was a prestigious residence by 1564-5 when Queen Mary stayed and first met Henry Lord Darnley (Bingham 1995, p. 85-6).

Both the coal and salt industries, foundations of the Wemyss' wealth, started by the 15th century and increased considerably during the 17th and 18th centuries. Several salt pans were worked in 1790, reached their peak of production in 1818 and then rapidly declined after c 1836. Coal extraction however, rose consistently throughout this period (Kirkcaldy District Council 1985).

Sir John, 1st Earl of Wemyss (1622-1649), created Lord Wemyss of Elcho in 1628, inherited the estate in 1622 adding to it by acquiring East Wemyss castle in 1615, the lands of Lochhead, near Lochgelly and Little Raith. He increased the salt pan industry and appointed a mining engineer to explore and assess the value of the Wemyss coalfields. This led to the discovery of the Bowhouse coal at Lochhead, in addition to twelve different rich coal seams on the western boundaries of the estate between Glass Cove and along the Blair Burn.

David, 2nd Earl of Wemyss, Lord Elcho (1610-79), Colonel of an infantry regiment raised in Fife in 1640, was active in further extending the estate, adding to its economic basis and the family wealth. He recorded many of these activities in a diary. Married in 1627 to Anna Balfour, he lived until 1639 with his family, in the tower-house at West Wemyss Chapel; returning to live in the Castle on his mother's death. He entirely renovated the gardens of the tower-house during this period (Cameron and Johnstone 1995).

In 1651, the three Burgh Baronies of West Wemyss, East Wemyss and Methil were united, with West Wemyss as the centre 'of the Barony of Wemysschire' (quoted in Cameron & Johnstone 1995) and the Castle as the principal residence which was substantially enlarged and remodelled. A picture of Wemyss Castle, painted by an unknown artist in 1653, commemorates the 2nd Earl's return to Wemyss after his second marriage (1650), to the Dowager Countess of Buccleuch (Cunningham 1909). He exploited minerals extensively as he:

'sank pits, won coal, worked ironstone, erected saltpans and constructed the harbours of Methil and Wemyss, from which he exported his salt and his coal…He had in contemplation a scheme to divert the River Ore from the vicinity of Thornton to West Wemyss, to drive his engine pits on route which at this time were either manual or horse.' (quoted in Cameron and Johnstone 1995).

The harbour construction at Methil (1660-70) cost some £40,000 Scots, while sinking 'The Happy Mine' was an investment of £100,000 Scots (Cunningham 1909).

In December 1669, the 2nd Earl contracted Robert Mylne, Master Mason to the King, to build an L plan addition to the south of the Castle's east range. This scheme incorporated the 15th century tower within the main entrance front, a seaward facade including a new tower, and a garden was laid out on the mansion's east and south fronts. The principal interiors are situated in these wings. An overmantel painting of 1718 by John van Sypen, in the State Drawing Room, shows the coastal panorama from West Wemyss Chapel tower-house to Macduffs Castle. This painting celebrates the Dutch Fleet, under Admiral Gentt, and the Scottish fleet at battle in Wemyss Bay in 1677. The landscape panorama includes Wemyss Castle and thereby is said to display the 2nd Earl's building and landscape works (Gifford 1992, p.424; Cameron and Johnstone 1995, p.3).

With no son to inherit, the estate and titles were settled on his daughter (by Margaret Leslie, his third wife and daughter of John Leslie, Earl of Rothes, see Leslie House). Margaret, Lady Burntisland, Countess of Wemyss (1678-1705) married Sir George Mackenzie, Viscount Tarbat, Earl of Cromartie in 1700 (q.v. An Inventory of Gardens and Designed Landscapes: Supplementary Volume 2: Highlands & Islands 2002, pp. 15, 21, 41-3). On her death in 1705, the estate passed to David 3rd Earl (1678-1720), one of the Commissioners for the Treaty of Union, Lord High Admiral of Scotland and the Isles, who further aggrandised the policies. He added a bowling green mounted with several cannons to the west of the Castle (Defoe 1724-7, pp.786-7). Descriptions of the Castle and policies in the 1720s relate it as:

'built upon an Eminence, and with awful Look hath a commanding Prospect over the Firth, into East Louthian, to the South to the Bass, to the east; and to Edinburgh, West Louthian, and the Bottom of the Firth to the West; Its Gardens and spacious Park run to the North.' By this date the residence was likened to a 'Palace..aboe 200 Foot Front to the South, with a Terrace on the top of the Rock, as at Windsor' (Macky 1724, p.82-3).

This description was condemned as 'Romantick' by Defoe who pointed out that the spacious park was 'Nothing like it. There is a Piece of Wast Ground planted with Firr-Trees, at the east End of the House, but they do not thrive…'. He noted the public road from East to West Wemyss dividing the castle from its 'large, well-planted Orchard' (Defoe 1724-7, pp.786-7).

The 3rd Earl obtained an Act of Parliament (1698) securing him a monopoly in the production of certain types of glass in the Glass Cave, also called the Kelp Cave from the extraction process of soda and potash used in glass production.

Having supported the Jacobite cause at Culloden, David Wemyss, Lord Elcho (1721-87), eldest son of James 4th Earl, lost his title and the estates were forfeited. It may have been during this period that the public road (from East to West Wemyss) was moved northwards to its current position (Ainslie 1775). In exile in Paris for thirty-two years, on his death the estate went to his younger brother, James (1726-86). It was James' second son, William (1760-1822), married to his cousin Lady Elizabeth Sutherland, who added to the amenities of the estate, developing the gardens and parkland landscape. In c 1789 he employed John Nicol, the gardener at Raith (see Raith) to lay out the walled garden and flower gardens (Neil 1813, p.167; Loudon 1822, p.1255). In c 1800 he commissioned Thomas White Jnr. to prepare a landscape scheme and planted some of White's proposed woodlands, particularly those between the Castle policies and East Wemyss. White's work was complemented by Walter Nicol (who also worked at Raith) who carried out further work in extending his fathers gardens of the 1790s. Nicol's experience at Wemyss and Raith formed the basis of his practical gardening handbooks, among them The Gardener's Kalendar (1812; see Henrey 1975, pp.406-7), and his claim to provide 'designs for gardens and Hot Houses, the laying out of Villa Grounds, Parks, Lawns, Approaches in the newest style' from his practice in Leith Walk, Edinburgh (Tait 1980, p.139-40). He may have been responsible for the design and construction of the Orangery (see below).

William Wemyss also commissioned Lewis Wyatt (1777-1853) to prepare designs for a Gothic gate. These were displayed at the 1808 Royal Arts Exhibition, however the gate was never built. Wyatt's interests in model estate buildings (he published A Collection of Architectural Designs Rural and Ornamental in 1800) may be the source, or have influenced, many of the new estate buildings built during the early 1800s (Headley and Meulenkampf 1986, p.474).

In the late 1800s the Wemyss estate increased its coal production and built a new dock at Methil in 1887. In 1889 the dock and railway servicing it, was sold to the North British Rail Company for £225,000. With the establishment of the Wemyss Coal Company in the 1890s, and the concentration of coal production at East Wemyss served by the docks and railway, there was a demand for workers housing. This led to the establishment of Coaltown of Wemyss as a picturesque estate village with miners' housing, and a primary school designed by Alexander Tod. Further housing in East Wemyss, West Wemyss, Buckhaven, the entire village of Denbeath and tram transport were laid out from 1904 onwards. These all took place under the direction of Randolph Erskine Wemyss (1858-1908). Modern alterations were made to the interior of the Castle by Peddie and Kinnear (1874-6) who added bay windows above an arcaded terrace on the east and laid out new gardens.

During the mid 1950s considerable reconstruction works were carried out at the Castle. Captain Michael and Victoria Wemyss lived nearby in the Red House prior to its completion. The property remains in family ownership.

Landscape Components

Architectural Features

Wemyss Castle, a multi-period building, incorporates a rectangular 15th century tower within its U-plan entrance front. Initially, the tower was probably set within the south-west corner of a walled enclosure. Additions of 1874-6 by Peddie & Kinnear, infilled the U-plan courtyard on the west and added an arcaded terrace on the east. These additions were demolished in 1930 by Stewart Tod, who rebuilt the west wing and added a small belltower between it and the 15th century tower.

The early 19th century, ornamental, castellated Home Farm built around a central Courtyard (Home Farm), includes Stables and Gatepiers. It was built to be viewed in the landscape, and may have been designed by Lewis Wyatt. The south-east front has an octagonal tower, round-headed portcullised carriage entrance with rectangular outer towers. Other facades are also castellated with carved heraldic stones, towers, Diocletian windows and archways, all in sandstone rubble with ashlar dressings. The Pink House, associated with the Courtyard is a picturesque c 1820's estate cottage; L-plan and harled, it has 'cottage ornée' details, timber-mullioned leaded windows and steeply-pitched hipped gables. The Red House is a later 19th century 3-storey tower house with a round stair tower corbelled to stair adjoining a two-storey, 3-bay house with shaped gables and round tower. Nos 1, 2 and 3 Cottages, with a Garden Wall is a row of late 19th century estate cottages, designed by Alexander Tod, to house retired estate workers.

The Walled Garden with a ruined Orangery lies to the north-east of the Castle. It dates to John Nicol's work in the 1790s and was later extended by Walter Nicol (post-1801). The walls are of red (Wemyss) brick with flat-copes. The south-east and south-west corners of the Orangery are rounded. Now in ruins, it has a freestone façade of Corinthian pilasters and circular windows.

A Doocot lies at the foot of the terraced gardens, south-west of the Castle. The circular battlemented tower, formerly a wind pump, was adapted to a doocot in the 19th century. A sundial in the gardens, of unknown date, is in the form of a carved stone column and is said to have come from Invermay, Perthshire.

The Dysart Lodge, or West Lodge, lies on the A915 outside Dysart. One-and-a-half storeys high it lies behind a gateway with four piers and dates from the 19th century. The East Lodge, on the approach of the A955 into East Wemyss, is of a similar pattern and date, although its four piers bear heraldic carvings of stone lions and swans.

At the westernmost point of the policies lies West Wemyss Chapel tower-house. This comprises the remains of a 16th century house of 4-storeys and a garret in height. On the seaward side is a wall (dating also to the 16th century) with a circular tower at the eastern end, which may have been a doocot. At the western end is another tower and between is a third outlook tower or bastion also of 16th century date. Although there appear to be no standing remains of a chapel at Chapel Garden, there is a burial enclosure with an archway formed from older masonry. Above the arch is a pediment inscribed EDW 1776, referring to David 6th Earl of Wemyss. A 17th century lectern sundial and sculptured stone panels stand within the enclosure.

Drives & Approaches

There were two principal approaches, one from the west and the other from the east. That from West Lodge led through Blair Den Wood and then into Chapel Wood. The drive crossed through parkland to the Castle entrance court (1st ed. OS 1854, 6"). The surviving East Drive leads through a woodland shelterbelt to the Castle in a similar manner. An entrance leads directly from Main Street, in the centre of Coaltown of Wemyss, to the Castle by way of the Home Farm.

Parkland

The designed landscape spans the whole coast between West and East Wemyss. The coastal parkland extends across coastal hills and cliffs with, to its west, a series of regular enclosure fields protected by shelterbelts. Although no plan of Thomas White's scheme is known, the configuration of the shelter belts and woodlands, together with layout of drives and parkland trees would conform to White's work - especially the sinuous tree belts laid out between the Castle and Coaltown of Wemyss.

Walled Gardens

The trapezoidal walled garden lies to the north of the Castle. It has brick walls about 12 ft high with stone copings (Neil 1813). An account of 1862 relates it as being both an ornamental flower garden with herbaceous border (300 ft x 7 ft), ribbon borders, a geometrical flower garden, and terraces as well as a fruit and vegetable garden. To the east of the flower garden lay a Conservatory with 'six Corinthian columns forming part of the front…showing some splendid workmanship…' (The Scottish Gardener 1862) and vineries

References

Bibliography

Maps, Plans and Archives

1747–55 General Roy's Military Survey, 1747–55

1745 Herman Moll, The Shires of Fife and Kinross, 1745

1775 John Ainslie, Counties of Fife and Kinross, with the Rivers Forth and Tay, 1775

1828 T Sharp, C Greenwood and W Fowler, Map of the Counties of Fife & Kinross, 1828

1854 survey, 1st edition OS 1:10560 (6"), published 1856

1893-4 survey, 2nd edition OS 1:10560 (6"), published 1896

1913 survey, 3rd edition OS 1:10560 (6"), published 1919

Royal Commission on Ancient & Historical Monuments of Scotland, National Monuments Record of Scotland: Photographic collection

Sources

Printed Sources

Historic Scotland on Behalf of Scottish Ministers, The List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest

Bingham, C. Darnley. A Life of Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley Consort of Mary Queen of Scots (1995). Buxbaum,T. Scottish Garden Buildings:From Food to Folly (1989)

Cameron,M. and Johnstone, D. West Wemyss: A Village Tale (1995)

Cunningham, A.S. Randolph Gordon Erskine Wemyss. An Appreciation (1909)

Defoe, D. A Tour thro' the Whole Island of Great Britain divided into Circuits or Journies, vol II, (1724-7, repr. 1968)

Geddie, J. The Shores of Fife (1923)

Gifford, J. The Buildings of Scotland: Fife (1992)

Headley, G. and Meulenkampf, W. Follies (1986)

Henrey, B. British Botanical and Horticultural Literature before 1800, vol.II, (1975)

Kirkcaldy District Council, West Wemyss. An Area for Conservation (1985)

Loudon, J.C. Encyclopaedia of Gardening (1822)

Macky, J. A Journey Through Scotland, (1723)

Neil, P. On Scottish Gardens and Orchards (1813)

New Statistical Account, Statistical Account of the Parish of Wemyss, vol.9, (1838), pp.390-404

Scottish Natural Heritage, Fife landscape character assessment (1999)

Tait, A. A The Landscape Garden in Scotland, 1735-1835 (1980), pp.139-140, 257

The Scottish Gardener, Vol.11, (1862), pp.88-93

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Images

WEMYSS CASTLE
WEMYSS CASTLE
WEMYSS CASTLE

Printed: 19/11/2018 22:36