Inventory Garden & Designed Landscape


Status: Designated


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Date Added
Local Authority
Kirkcaldy And Dysart
NT 25211 91582
325211, 691582

Raith Park is a foremost example of a large, ambitious picturesque landscape by Thomas White, c.1783, and James Playfair (1755-94) who designed the architectural elements. Earlier and later landscaping phases are also of interest, including the formation of Beveridge Park, a public park serving Kirkcaldy, in the south-east of the policies.

Type of Site

A late 18th-early 19th century picturesque park, overlaying a late 17th (?) formal landscape.

Main Phases of Landscape Development

Late 17th, late 18th and early 19th century

Artistic Interest

Level of interest

Raith has high value as a Work of Art being a prime example of one of White's designed landscapes, displaying his skill in planting layout and design. His collaboration with Playfair resulted in a picturesque composition, well noted by contemporary critics and topographers.


Level of interest

The relationship of Raith and Beveridge Park demonstrate the evolution of private and public landscaping in the vicinity of a major industrial town. The designed landscape's recorded and long-standing associations with Abbotshall, the Melville and Ferguson families and the design involvement of Smith, Playfair, the Nicols and Whites combine to give the site outstanding Historical value. The foundation of Beveridge Park as a gift, alongside the library in Kirkcaldy is an important aspect of Kirkcaldy's civic history.


Level of interest

The site retains some Horticultural value through its specimen trees, but there is little else.


Level of interest

Raith House, the estate buildings and structures, including Playfair's Home Farm and involvement have a well-documented architectural history. The lodges in Beveridge Park are important features of the public park. This together with the importance of the architects associated with the property and their patrons give the site outstanding Architectural value.


Level of interest

The policies have some Archaeological potential, particularly in view of the proximity of Balwearie Castle and the numerous quarries in the area, possibly connected with the Balwearie Flint Mill which provided David Methven & Sons of the Links or Kirkcaldy potteries. It functioned from 1714-1930.


Level of interest

Although sheltered from public roads in the direct vicinity of Raith, the policies form the rural landscape character on the fringes of Kirkcaldy. In addition there are important long-distance views to the house and policies from adjacent hills. The site can thereby be considered of high Scenic value.

Location and Setting

Raith Park lies directly on the west side of Kirkcaldy, bounded to the south by the B925 (Kirkcaldy-Auchtertool) and to the north by the A910 (Kirkcaldy-Glenrothes) roads.

The landscape is highly distinctive with the policies ranged over the easternmost point of the Cullaloe Hills. The pronounced hills with recognisable peaks and steep slopes, give long-distance views over the lower coastal areas fringing the Forth and, to the north-west, to the Lomond Hills. Raith House is situated on a ridge midway between, and linking, Cormie Hill and Castle Hill. The Dronachy Burn forms a deep, narrow glen. It rises in Auchtertool and flows into Raith Lake, artificially formed at the foot of Sunnybrae and Castle Hill.

To the north-west, principal views were originally gained of the Lomond Hills, now obscured by heavy tree cover. Extensive views to the Firth of Forth, North Berwick Law and Arthurs Seat are obtained from Raith House. A panoramic view of Raith House set in its designed landscape is obtained from the ridge to the south, at Balwearie, over Boglily Braes.

Many of the Raith farms lie of the edge/outside the Inventory designed landscape but, due to the topography, afford important views of the designed landscape. These are Bankhead of Raith Farmhouse and Steading, Balwearie Cottage, Balwearie Farmhouse and West Balbarton Farmhouse.

Roy's Survey (1747-55) shows both the Raith and Abbotshall policies, separated by the Dronachy Burn, and the high land at the Scars and Sunnybraes. Both of the latter areas were set with steadings and plantations. The Raith policies later expanded to include the Scars, Sunnybraes and Abbotshall, reaching their greatest extent by the early 20th century (1920, OS 6"). The designed landscape set out by Thomas White and Playfair included these areas, but has since contracted due to Kirkcaldy's post-war expansion.

Site History

The Melville family (ancestors of the Earls of Leven and Melville) are said to have settled at Raith c 1400. Sir John Melville of Raith (1502-48), knighted by James IV and appointed the Master of Ordnance and Captain of Dunbar Castle by James V was executed in 1548. His lands were forfeited to the Crown and thereafter restored to John Melville, his eldest surviving son in 1563.

Raith House was designed (between 1689-98), for Alexander Melville, Lord Raith, Treasurer-Depute of Scotland eldest son of George 1st Earl of Melville and his wife Barbara Dundas, by James Smith. Smith's design is said to reflect a ' monumental small classical house' reflecting 'the antique gravity of Palladio's villas'. However, a simpler version of his design was built between 1693-6 (Glendinning, MacInnes & MacKechnie 1996, p.100-1; Gifford 1992, p.352-3). Nothing is known of the landscape at this period, although a formal landscape existing by the mid 18th century, may derive in part to an associated layout. Roy's Survey (1747-55) shows Raith House set within a somewhat 'idealised' layout, the house oriented due north-south at the centre of a regular layout of flanking rectangular plantations to east and west, and a wilderness set to the north. Regular tree-lined enclosure fields extended to the south to Datie Mill and to the north to Long Braes. That this is probably an idealised plan is proved by the actual orientation of the house facing north-west to south-east, and the highly undulating topography. The Abbotshall policies shown broadly correspond to the walled gardens depicted on Playfairs 1783 plan (see below).

As Lord Raith predeceased his father (1698) the property passed to the next eldest surviving son David Melville, 3rd Earl of Leven and 2nd Earl of Melville (d.1728). He sold the Raith estate in 1723 to Robert Ferguson (1690-1781). Ferguson was a 'Scotch merchant…who had thriven in trade in London, and by middle life had realised 300,000l., besides purchasing a considerable estate at Raith in Fifeshire' (Stephen 1993, p.399). He joined the estate with the lands of Abbotshall which he had bought previously. The Abbotshall estate, including a 'house built of stone' (mentioned in 1536), was originally a residence of the abbots of Dunfermline (RCAHMS; Sibbald 1803, p.315). Abbotshall, described as a large and fine new house in 1710, adjoined Raith to the south-east.

Ferguson had two nephews by his sister, Robert, the elder who joined his uncle's business in the City of London, and William. Whereas Robert married a distant cousin (a Miss Seaton) who died in childbirth in 1767, leaving him with two infant daughters (Mary and Agnes), William 'had ingratiated himself with his uncle. Besides this, he had married a Miss Crawford, who brought him 5,000l. in money and two sons in the first two years of their marriage' (Stephen 1993, p.399). For whatever reason, when Ferguson died he left his estate to William Berry, who adopted the name Ferguson and aftermore was referred to by his nieces as 'the usurper' (Stephen 1993, p.399). William inherited '300,000l. in the funds and an estate worth 4,000l. to 5,000l. a year in Scotland. Robert Berry had a bare legacy of 10,000l. William, however, settled on Robert an annuity of 1,000l.' In 1783 Robert Berry and his two daughters travelled abroad to Holland, Switzerland and Italy. During this tour, Mary Berry (1763-1852) began her 'Journals and Correspondence', which she was to continue until her death, seventy years later. From 1791, she and her sister lived at Little Strawberry Hill Cottage on Horace Walpole's estate, where they stayed until his death in 1797. She became his confidante, literary executrix and edited his correspondence, alongside other literary works.

Berry was active at Raith, planting trees, draining marshy land, planning the park and pleasure ground (Millar 1895, p.315). These extensive works, turned Raith into the focus of his estate, in preference to Abbotshall, which he achieved through architectural and landscape commissions. A plan of Abbotshall by James Playfair dated 1783, preliminary to the re-instatement of the garden, shows ruins within a formal landscape consisting of a walled entrance forecourt and, to the north, a walled garden with a 'Rampert' linking the 'old House' with the south garden wall (Soane Museum 78/1/1). John Nicol (d.1824), was employed to lay out the walled garden and flower gardens using the framework of the 'Old Garden' (shown in Playfair's plan). Playfair's plan also marks the 'old Gates', which may be the surviving ornamental wrought iron gates, removed and stored within the Raith Stable Court grounds.

At about the same time, Thomas White senior (c.1736-1811) was employed to landscape the grounds and prepared a plan in 1783. Sunk fences were to 'be marked out on the spot', estate cottages, farm houses, a reservoir for water, a flower garden, a hot house and hot house garden were all planned. Nicol's remit was presumably to develop the finer detail within this overall landscape scheme, executed over a period of time. From this period successive generations of the Nicol family worked in Fife (see Wemyss, Craigtoun). An account of 1806 notes the woods and plantations laid out:

'with great taste in the neighbourhood of Kirkcaldy….a fine ornament to the vicinity. Several tracts of barren ground and divided commons have been lately planted; but as the trees are yet in an infant state, they make little appearance. These young plantations consist of various kinds such as oak, Scots fir, larix, beech, birch, ash'.

The use of larch as a nursery crop was particularly commended (Forsyth 1806, p.74). This account corresponds with knowledge of White's practice and methods (see Turnbull 1990).

James Playfair's architectural scheme complemented the landscape. He was instructed in 1785 to remodel the interior of Raith House and add pavilions joined to the main block by quadrant links. He also prepared designs for a gateway and lodge (SRO GD 248/591/2). A major project was his design and construction of the stable court and Home Farm, set immediately north-east of Raith House. Situated on rising ground, the prominent south front was designed with a pedimented front with niches containing statues, to act as an ornamental screen, visible from the house's main entrance.

In 1783, the same year that Playfair drew the Abbotshall plan, his elder brother John Playfair (1748-1819), highly regarded as a mathematician, teacher and writer, was appointed as tutor to William's two sons Robert and Ronald. He taught them until 1787 and, during this period, was appointed Joint Professor of Mathematics at Edinburgh University (1785). Shortly after this, in c 1789-90, Sir Henry Raeburn, a personal friend of Playfair's (Playfair 1999, p.31) was commissioned to paint the brothers portrait. The result was 'The Archers', considered an outstanding portrait from his early career (bought by The National Gallery, London in 2001). It shows the brothers engaged in archery, a fashionable sport, which underwent a contemporary revival in the late 18th century. Robert and Ronald became members of the Royal Company of Archers in 1792 and 1801.

John Playfair's works include Illustrations of the Huttonian Theory of the Earth (1802) and Outlines of Natural Philosophy (1812, 1816). As a close friend of James Hutton, he presented Hutton's theories in a clear, accessible form and it is said that he 'not only gave popularity to Hutton's theory, but helped to create the modern science of geology.' (quoted in Playfair 1999, p.31). He imparted this love of geology to his pupils, the eldest Robert Crawford Ferguson (1767-1840) became a politician and mineral collector. He travelled extensively in Europe (1795-1805) collecting minerals and fossils; the mineral Fergusonite was named after him. Returning to Scotland in 1806, he married Mary, Lady Elgin, daughter of William Hamilton-Nisbet of Dirleton (q.v. Inventory, Volume 5, p.68). He was Member of Parliament for Kirkcaldy (1831-2), County Member for East Lothian (1835-7 and 1837-40) and Lord Lieutenant of Fifeshire.

By c 1800 Walter Nicol (d.1811), John's son, was employed as Head Gardener. His experience at Raith provided the basis for a considerable number of published works, most notably The Gardener's Kalendar (1810). Loudon states that 'Nicol, while practising as head gardener at Raith, Wemyss Castle, and other places, kept a regular journal of this sort; he published it as his 'Kitchen Gardener' in 1802' (Loudon 1824, p.163). He was associated with Dicksons in Edinburgh in 1797, until setting up in partnership as Nicol and Forrest, of Middlefield, Leith Walk. Although there was a good gardening library at Raith it contained only Nicol's 'The Planter's Kalendar' of 1812, (Ferguson of Raith 1817).

A number of follies were constructed as eyecatchers in the outer landscape. Torbain Tower, a square crenellated tower appears on high ground, in views from and framed between, the parkland perimeter belts at the foot of Broom Hill. Lambswell, built to be viewed due west from Raith House, is almost identical in form to Balwearie Tower. Both are built onto farmhouses. The latter in particular, appears as a 'Beautifully detailed Gothic to suggest that this is the surviving gable of a vanished church' (Gifford 1992, p.301). Raith Tower, a square crenellated tower, built at the summit of Cormie Hill, the highest point in the policies, was built to house Ferguson's geological collection. Several stone coffins, urns and human bones have been found on the hill and the tower was said to have been built on the site of 'a small artificial mound on removing which it evidently appeared to have been a burnt mound and many fragments of deer's horns were found in it.' (N.S.A. 1845, p.150). The number of towers built at this period is completed by the Ice House, set on a walk between the house and the Home Farm.

In 1812, the Dronachy Burn from Camilla Loch, Auchtertool was dammed up in a hollow at the foot of Castle Hill and Raith Lake was formed (for a view of the park from the lake see Leighton 1840, p.151).

Sir Robert Crawford Ferguson died without issue in 1840, and his younger brother, Ronald inherited. General Sir Ronald Crawford Ferguson (1773-1841), served in India 1794-1800, where he met and then married Jean, the daughter of General Sir Hector Munro of Novar (q.v. Inventory Supplementary Volume 2, pp 29-34). She died in 1802 'A few weeks after the birth of her son (from a chill caught at Raith)' (Highland Council Archive D538/N/2, 1898) and he was engaged, briefly in 1803, to his first cousin Agnes Berry (see above).

Ronald survived his older brother by only a year, and in 1841, his son Col. Robert Munro Ferguson (1802-68) inherited both the Raith and Novar estates. An altar-tomb was erected to Munro Ferguson on Castle Hill, a 'picturesque spot within the grounds of Raith' (Millar 1895, p.123). By the mid 19th century Raith was well known and visited for its picturesque landscape and scenery, with a number of topographical accounts describing its features. It was visited as a:

'famed resort of holiday promenaders, who freely obtain the proprietor's permission ..The high ground is Comrie hill, on which stands Raith Tower, 400 feet above the level of the sea…The view from the top of the tower is said to range over fourteen counties. The river Camilla flows though the delightful walks which environ Raith house into a large sheet of water, twenty-one acres in extent, and frequented by swans and wild fowl in the heart of the pleasure-grounds.' (Menzies 1853, pp.80-1).

Other accounts mention features of the grounds and romantic tales which had become associated with them. Thus Croupie Craigs, 'a romantic rocky ravine' with waterfalls, derived its name from a local miller who tamed his wife by suspending her above the craig until she was half-drowned (Millar 1895, p.315-6; 1894, OS 6""). Lovers Loup derived its name from the story that a pair of lovers leapt from the rocks (Anon 1900, p.21)

Robert Crawford Munro Ferguson (1860-1934), created Lord Novar in 1920, inherited Raith at the age of 8. He became M.P.for Ross and Cromarty in 1884, was private secretary to Lord Rosebery and became Governor General of Australia. He was 'never happier than when working among his woods and walks of Raith..A noted expert in afforestation, his estate was the last word in silviculture' (Thomson 1952, p.17).

During the late 19th century tracts of the estate were sold off. Houses were built at Raith Estate and Long Braes. Michael Beveridge (1836-90), partner in Shepherd and Beveridge Co., manufacturers of linoleum, left a gift of £50,000 to create a park and library. In 1890, 92 acres of the Raith estate, were sold for the creation of Beveridge Park, formally opened in September 1892 by Mrs Beveridge, his widow. The sale included the Newton Park and Robbie's Park, the Abbotshall walled garden of two acres, Southerton (the factor's house set amidst a fruit garden), and the flower garden separated by a drive from Southerton (1894, OS 6""; Anon 1900, p.23). The public park was designed by William Drysdale Sang (c.1850-1917), and includes a lake with an island; formed from a previously boggy area, gravel walks and carriage drives. J W Hislop designed a Gate Lodge at the Main Entrance, and Southerton Lodge (the Gardener's Lodge) with a view of the whole park, situated near the flower garden (Gifford 1992, p.292).

Housing development in the outer park has continued during the mid-late 20th century. The Kennels, 'The Scars' and other parkland areas flanking the north drive have all gradually been built over (1894, OS 6""; 1913, OS 6""). Beveridge Park continues to be one of Kirkcaldy's major public parks. The greater part of the policies and the inner park remain in private ownership.

Landscape Components

Architectural Features

Raith House, designed by James Smith 1694, is a 2-storey and vaulted basement, 7-bay Palladian mansion, with a carved pediment by James Thomson and Alexander Baxter. Smith's design is similar to his others at Newhailes (q.v. Inventory. Supplementary volume 1. p.64-77) and Strathleven House, Dunbartonshire. Playfair added pavilions and quadrant links in 1785, when the interior was remodelled. A porch was added to the main, north entrance sometime after 1895, replacing an Ionic portico of c. 1800 (Millar 1895, p.120), as well as a balcony on the south.

The Stable Court and Home Farm, is by James Playfair c. 1785. It is rectangular in plan, a classical stable-court around a central courtyard. The south front, of squared and snecked dark whinstone rubble, is pedimented with niches for statues (some now removed). The other facades are coursed rubble with ashlar sandstone dressings. Internal to the courtyard the ranges are formally treated, many with cart arches. The Laundry House, probably contemporary with the Stable Court, is a single and 2-storey, 7-bay piend-roofed house of dark whinstone rubble with dressed ashlar sandstone quoins and dressings.

Raith Tower, an early 19th century, 3-storey square-plan, crenellated lookout tower of harled brick, stands on Cormie Hill. Other structures within the landscape, also dating to the early 19th century are the Ice house, constructed as a 3-storey circular tower with a crenellated turnpike stair-tower atop a mound (its upper stages form a game larder) and a segmental-arched rubble Bridge over the Dronachy Burn, carrying the main south drive. An Ashlar altar-tomb on granite base, in memory of Colonel Robert Munro Ferguson of Raith and Novar, dated 1868 is situated on Castle Hill, one of the highest spots within the policies.

Heather Lodge, at the south entrance, is an early 19th century cottage ornée style lodge. It is harled with ashlar quoins and pointed arched, traceried windows. Raith Lodge and Gateway, Abbotshall Road are by Playfair, 1786. The single-storey, bow-ended classical lodge is of dressed ashlar with droved quoins. The gateway has ashlar gatepiers, coursed rubble screen walls with ashlar copings and early 19th century, decorative wrought-iron gates. The Walled Garden, situated at Abbotshall and formed out of the original Abbotshall garden, consists of rubble boundary walls, rendered with copings, now breached in places. The east side has large curved and battered buttresses and the north has a segmental-headed ashlar cart entrance. The south-east elevation includes a old gateway with a moulded stone pedimented pavilion of droved ashlar.

The following estate buildings and follies, lie outside the Inventory landscape but are crucial to its layout. Torbain Tower, a 2-stage crenellated tower (now roofless) with a circular corner turret is an eyecatcher built into the early 19th century Torbain farm steading, north-east of Raith House. Lambswell, an early 19th century, 2-stage rubble folly with gothic arches built into the gable end of a farmhouse, lies due west of the mansion. Balwearie Tower, south-east of Raith House on the Tiel Burn, is virtually identical to Lambswell.

Drives & Approaches

The principal entrance now leads into the estate from the north, from Raith House Drive off the A910, past recent housing development, then along an avenue to the mansion. Previously, Raith Lodge and Gateway, now situated on Abbotshall Road (see above), acted as the main entrance from Kirkcaldy onto the Raith Drive. This led past the Abbotshall Walled Garden and north-westwards over a fish pond, serving as an outflow of Raith Lake, across parkland to enter Sunnybrae Plantation before arriving at Raith House.

The steep slopes are thickly wooded, with walks along the burn, now largely obscured by tree growth. Picturesque walks led, principally along the Dronachy Burn and were interspersed with incidents, Diana's Fountain, the Ladies Bridge (1894, OS 6") and others (see above).


The inner park is the only area to survive as parkland; the area directly to the north of the house retains remnants of an earlier formal approach. Parkland to the south of Raith House lies on a south-facing slope sheltered to the north by woodlands around the house, and falls steeply down to the Dronachy Burn.

'The Scars' situated to the north-east of Raith House has been developed for housing, as have areas along the northern approach drive in the vicinity of Chapel Lodge (1894, OS 6") and areas along the Raith Drive to Abbotshall, Kirkcaldy. Other outer areas of parkland are in agricultural use, and may always have consisted of arable areas as well as pasture. Enclosures, as at Balbarton Braes, consist of long, open 'tongues' of land, with steeper wooded slopes. These provide long vistas, when viewed from the drives, and are characteristic of White's work.


Woodland in the policies is extensive. There are some areas of coniferous plantation but, generally, they reflect the species mix noted in Forsyth's account.

The Gardens

No formal gardens survive. The house, set in White's landscape setting, was without gardens directly around the house. The walled garden and Abbotshall gardens were the ornamental flower, fruit and vegetable gardens. A parterre flower garden has been established recently on the south front of the house.

Walled Gardens

The Walled Garden was located at Abbotshall. Only the walls and gateways survive as the interior has been developed for housing.



Maps, Plans and Archives

1747-55 General Roy's Military Survey, 1747-1755

1775 John Ainslie, Counties of Fife and Kinross with the Rivers Forth and Tay, 1775

1783 Thomas White 'A Plan for the Improvement of Raith the Seat of Wm. Ferguson Esquire by Thos.White 1783'

1783 James Playfair, 'Plan of the gardens at Abbotshall. 5th Dec. 1783'

1827 John Thomson, 'Map of Fife & Kinross'

1828 T Sharp, C Greenwood and W Fowler, Map of the Counties of Fife & Kinross, 1828

1854-55 survey, 1st edition OS 1:10560 (6"), published 1856

1894 survey 2nd edition OS 1:10560 (6"), published 1897

1913 survey 3rd edition OS 1:10560 (6"), published 1920

Scottish Record Office: Playfair, James. Raith park gateway and lodge for William Ferguson, 1786. Drawings in Soane portfolio. (GD 248/591/2).

Scottish Record Office: White, Thomas 'A Plan ….. of Raith…1783' photocopy.

Soane Museum: Playfair, James. Raith Park. 10 drawings (Drawer 78. Set 9)

Highland Council Archive D538 Novar Estate Papers, including Raith Estate, Fife

Royal Commission on Ancient & Historical Monuments of Scotland, National Monuments Record of Scotland: Photographic collection; (Raith)


Printed Sources

Historic Scotland on behalf of Scottish Ministers The Lists of Buildings of Architectural or Historic Interest

Anon, Bits from bonnie Raith and Beveridge Park, (c1900)

Ferguson of Raith, R. Catalogue of Books in the Library of Robert Ferguson of Raith, Esquire (1817).

Colvin, H. A Biographical Dictionary of British Architects 1600-1840 (1995)

Forsyth, R. The Beauties of Scotland, vol.iv, (1806)

Gifford, J. The Buildings of Scotland: Fife (1992)

Glendinning, M. MacInnes, R. & MacKechnie, A. A History of Scottish Architecture (1996)

Leighton, J.M.History of the County of Fife, vol.iii (1840)

Loudon, J.C. Encyclopaedia of Gardening (1824)

Menzies Tourists Pocket Guide for Scotland (1853)

Millar, A. H. Fife Pictorial and Historical, vol. II (1895)

Neil, P. On Scottish Gardens and Orchards (1813)

New Statistical Account, Statistical Account of the Parish of Abbotshall, vol.9, (1837)

Old Statistical Account, Statistical Account of the Parish of Abbotshall, vol. 16, (1795)

Playfair, H. The Playfair Family (1984).

Stephen, L. Dictionary of National Biography, vol.II, 1993

Tait, A. A. The Landscape Garden in Scotland 1735-1835 (1980)

The Cottage Gardener vol. 16, 1856, p.308-10

Thomson, D.P. Raith and Kirkcaldy. A second series of short biographical studies of famous natives of the town and district (1952)

Turnbull, D. Thomas White (1739-1811).18th century landscape designer and arboriculturalist. PhD Thesis Hull University (1990)

About the Inventory of Gardens and Designed Landscapes

Historic Environment Scotland is responsible for designating sites and places at the national level. These designations are Scheduled monuments, Listed buildings, Inventory of gardens and designed landscapes and Inventory of historic battlefields.

We make recommendations to the Scottish Government about historic marine protected areas, and the Scottish Ministers decide whether to designate.

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Printed: 19/09/2019 22:08