Inventory Garden & Designed Landscape

PITMEDDENGDL00314

Status: Designated

Documents

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Summary

Date Added
01/07/1987
Local Authority
Aberdeenshire
Parish
Udny
NGR
NJ 88423 27895
Coordinates
388423, 827895

The restored formal parterre gardens are an outstanding work of art and the whole designed landscape makes an important contribution to the surrounding scenery as well as providing the setting for some exceptional architectural features.

Importance of Site

A site included in the Inventory is assessed for its condition and integrity and for its level of importance. The criteria used are set out in Annex 5 of the Scottish Historic Environment Policy (December 2011). The principles are represented by the following value-based criteria and we have assigned a value for each on a scale ranging from outstanding value to no value. Criteria not applicable to a particular site have been omitted. All sites included in the Inventory are considered to be of national importance.

Work of Art

Value
Outstanding

Pitmedden has outstanding value as a Work of Art based on the artistic restoration of the formal gardens.

Historical

Value
High

The association with the Seton family and the historical references to the original gardens give Pitmedden high Historical value.

Horticultural, Arboricultural, Silvicultural

Value
Some

The range of plants, particularly the roses and apples gives Pitmedden some Horticultural value.

Architectural

Value
Outstanding

The garden walls and pavilions are listed category A, giving Pitmedden outstanding Architectural value.

Scenic

Value
High

The woodland strips in the surrounding agricultural landscape give Pitmedden high Scenic value.

Nature Conservation

Value
Little

The early 19th century woodland gives the site a little Nature Conservation value.

Archaeological

Value
Not Assessed

Location and Setting

Pitmedden is bounded by the A920 on two sides and lies halfway between Oldmeldrum and Ellon some 15 miles (24km) north of Aberdeen. Pitmedden village lies to the south-east on the B999. The Great Garden of Pitmedden is situated on the lip of the shallow valley of the Bronie Burn which flows north-east to the River Ythan. The climate is severe and the garden is open to the cold north-east winds. The remains of the woodland strips and the small copses make a contribution to the surrounding scenery.

The designed landscape extends in a formal rectangle bounded by the main road on the west and north side, and by the minor B roads to the south and east. The woodland strips mainly run east/west. Evidence of the designed landscape can be seen in the 1st edition OS plan of 1865 and the extent has remained similar since then. There are views along the Bronie Burn valley to the north- east and shorter views westwards across the park to the small wood. The designed landscape extends for about 61 acres (24.5ha) including the large park and the formal garden of 4.8 acres (1.9ha).

Site History

The original garden was created in the late 17th century; it fell into decay in the 19th century and was used as a kitchen garden when the NTS acquired the property. Between 1952-61 the NTS recreated the formal gardens; other restoration continued until 1978.

Pitmedden Estate was acquired by James Seton in 1603 and it was his second son Alexander who, with his wife Margaret Lauder, created the garden in 1675. He was an advocate in Edinburgh and had been brought up by the 3rd Earl of Winton at Winton in East Lothian. A friend of Charles II, Alexander was knighted in 1664 and died in 1719. He knew Sir William Bruce of Kinross well and it is likely that Sir William could have influenced the design. The garden was recognised as 'one of the best laid out gardens in the north of Scotland' (c.1800). In 1818 the house was badly damaged by fire and all the family papers were lost including those of the garden. In c.1860 Sir William Coote Seton demolished the remains of the house and built the present one. In 1894 the estate was sold to a local farmer, Alexander Keith, and it was his son, Major James Keith a recognised agriculturalist, who gave the property to the National Trust for Scotland in 1952. The NTS acquired the estate with the intention of recreating the walled garden and they asked Dr James S. Richardson to formulate the designs. In 1980 following the bequest of Mr William Cook of Little Meldrum Farm, Tarves, the NTS was able to set up the Museum of Farming Life in the stables.

Landscape Components

Architectural Features

Pitmedden House is a two-storey mansion, listed category B, possibly built by William Henderson in c.1853. The east front was remodelled in 1944-45 by A.G.R. Mackenzie. The stables and outbuildings were probably built during the mid-19th century.

Pitmedden Great Garden, the walls, artefacts and pavilions were built c.1675 and are all listed category A. The south terrace was demolished and partially rebuilt in the 19th century and the pavilions were reroofed in c.1956. The Fountain in the upper garden was restored in 1956 and incorporates 17th century stone. The Fountain in the lower garden was created by J.S. Richardson from fragments from Pitmedden and part of Roger Mylne's Linlithgow Cross. The Sundial was set on its present site in 1958.

Parkland

The parks are bordered by shelterbelts, some of which have been recently replanted with hardwoods and a nurse crop of conifers. There are several small clumps within the parks and one of these has also been replanted. Rare breeds of Shetland sheep are kept for the interest of visitors and are grazed in the west parks. The drives are sheltered by woodland strips. There is a sycamore avenue to the north of the gardener's cottage and a beech shelterbelt along the south drive. A beech avenue has been planted along the west approach. The car park is situated to the south of the garden.

Woodland

Except for one copse surrounding the lime kiln outside the park, the woodland is mainly composed of shelter strips bordering the fields planted c.1800, of predominantly beech, some lime and, more recently, conifers. There are the remnants of a woodland shrubbery planting to the east of the walled garden along the Bronie Burn and around the pond.

The Gardens

Dr Richardson based the pattern for the four outstanding parterres from a bird's eye view of Edinburgh drawn in 1647 by James Gordon of Rothiemay showing the layout of the gardens at Holyrood House. The parterres lie in the four quarters of the walled garden with the fountain as the centrepiece. Three of the designs for the parterre are abstract forms and the third is the Seton Coat of Arms. Over 4.5 miles of box was planted to create the intricate shapes; some are filled with coloured gravel and others with over 40,000 bedding plants raised annually in the greenhouses. Along the west/east central axis of the garden, leading from the stairway, is a double row of clipped pyramidal yews. The large herbaceous borders planted under the north and east walls were originally designed by Sybil, Lady Burnett from Crathes, and were designed to be viewed from above and provide blocks of colour. Fan trained plums and espalier apple trees of the older varieties have also been planted along the walls; these are a legacy from the days when the garden was used as a kitchen garden.

A high retaining stone wall divides the upper from the lower terrace joined at the centre by an elegant double flight of steps. The two identical pavilions lie at either end and the 12' (4m) high wall and tall yew buttresses have been replanted under the retaining wall. The fountain and lily pond at the centre of the upper terrace have been reconstructed and the water flows to the font recessed in the stairway. Deeside peebles, cut in half, were used as cobbles to form the paths. Surrounding the fountain is a simple formal design of pleached limes about 9' (3m) high, centred on two old yews. There are period wall plants and authentic period style seats under the west wall between the buttresses. There is also a large period style bed of old fashioned species roses against the outer west wall and the upper lawn.

A herb garden on the upper terrace to the north of the house completes the restoration. It is also laid out in quarters edged with box, and is linked by espalier apple trees trained into an arch; each quarter is filled with different herbs, many labelled. During the summer months the garden is full of colour and interest.

Walled Gardens

Behind the farm buildings is the propagating area supplying the garden with its bedding and herbaceous plants. There is one greenhouse, partially heated.

References

Bibliography

Sources

Printed Sources

NTS, P. Sked, Guidebook

NTS, Pitmedden and its Great Garden

NTS, Annual Report, 1983

NTS, Management Plan

P. Verney, 1976

NTS,Companion Guide to Pitmedden

NTS, List of Trees at Pitmedden

New Statistical Account

CL, June 1975

HHC & G

Groome's

Listings

NMRS, Photographs

About the Inventory of Gardens and Designed Landscapes

Historic Environment Scotland is responsible for the designation of buildings, monuments, gardens and designed landscapes and historic battlefields. We also advise Scottish Ministers on the designation of historic marine protected areas.

The inventory is a list of Scotland's most important gardens and designed landscapes. We maintain the inventory under the terms of the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979.

We add sites of national importance to the inventory using the criteria published in the Historic Environment Scotland Policy Statement.

The information in the inventory record gives an indication of the national importance of the site(s). It is not a definitive account or a complete description of the site(s). The format of records has changed over time. Earlier records may be brief and some information will not have been recorded.

Enquiries about development proposals, such as those requiring planning permission, on or around inventory sites should be made to the planning authority. The planning authority is the main point of contact for all applications of this type.

Find out more about the inventory of gardens and designed landscapes and our other designations at www.historicenvironment.scot. You can contact us on 0131 668 8716 or at designations@hes.scot.

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Printed: 17/12/2018 13:19