Inventory Garden & Designed Landscape

BLAIR CASTLEGDL00059

Status: Designated

Documents

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Summary

Date Added
01/07/1987
Local Authority
Perth And Kinross
Parish
Blair Atholl
NGR
NN 86268 66595
Coordinates
286268, 766595

Outstanding in every category, the 1000-hectare landscape has been a masterpiece of formal design from its inception in the mid 1700s, and continues to be so today. It comprises parkland, woodland, an 18th century wilderness, formal gardens, a recently restored walled garden, and the Grade A listed Blair Castle.

Type of Site

A fine example of a surviving mid-18th-century formal landscape with parkland and woodland enclosures, woodland copses, 'wilderness' and formal gardens.

Main Phases of Landscape Development

Laid out mid-18th century, with woodland planting in the late 18th and early 19th century, formal gardens made mid-19th century and removed mid-20th century and current, 21st century, ongoing restoration.

Importance of Site

A site included in the Inventory is assessed for its condition and integrity and for its level of importance. The criteria used are set out in Annex 5 of the Scottish Historic Environment Policy (December 2011). The principles are represented by the following value-based criteria and we have assigned a value for each on a scale ranging from outstanding value to no value. Criteria not applicable to a particular site have been omitted. All sites included in the Inventory are considered to be of national importance.

Work of Art

Value
Outstanding

The design of the landscape on such a grand scale and in such an impressive setting was a masterpiece in its time, particularly in the mid 18th century. This gives Blair outstanding value as a Work of Art.

Historical

Value
Outstanding

Blair Castle is historically of outstanding value as an excellent example of one of the great formal landscapes designed in the mid-18th century. There is good documentary evidence of the development of the landscape. Many features from the great formal period can still be identified on site and the original layout traced.

Horticultural, Arboricultural, Silvicultural

Value
Outstanding

The pinetum contains a collection of conifers which is very important arboriculturally for the variety and size of the species. The site is given added importance by the historic silvicultural significance of the early pioneering forestry planting. This gives Blair outstanding Horticultural value.

Architectural

Value
Outstanding

The landscape provides the setting for the category A listed building. It also includes a variety of follies, eyecatchers and ornaments. 'The Whim' is also listed category A, giving the site outstanding Architectural Value.

Scenic

Value
Outstanding

The designed landscape has outstanding Scenic value. It occupies most of the valley of the River Garry at this point and the elements within it, notably the parkland, the woodland clumps and belts and the forestry plantations all make a major contribution to the scenery of the area.

Nature Conservation

Value
Outstanding

The lime-rich area of Glen Tilt, Tulach Hill, and other nearby areas are designated as a Site of Special Scientific Interest and gives Blair outstanding Nature Conservation value.

Archaeological

Value
Not Assessed

Location and Setting

Blair Castle lies at Blair Atholl off the A9 on the southern edge of the Grampians, in the valley of the River Garry at its confluence with the River Tilt. The surrounding landscape is characterised primarily by upland vegetation and forestry but the character of the designed landscape is influenced by the peculiar geology of the valley. Slates and schists are interbedded with grey and white limestones which are less resistant to erosion and have formed the wide fertile basin around Blair Atholl. The calcareous soils are richer and more fertile than those of the surrounding acid areas, producing good pasture and supporting some arable crops. Tulach Hill is a prominent feature in views south from the Castle, and to the north the surrounding hills are all important. The grand scale of the designed landscape, which occupies most of the valley, and the large and prominent forestry plantations which spread north up into the upland Forest of Atholl, are very significant in the surrounding scenery.

The Castle is set in the centre of the park which is surrounded to the west, north and east by extensive woodland. Because of its upland location, the surrounding hills are an important part of the setting for the Castle and the designed landscape.

Documentary evidence for the extent of design takes the form of a number of plans and OS maps, including the survey drawn by John Tinney in 1747. The designed landscape also includes the forest plantations originally laid out by John, 4th Duke of Atholl, between 1774 and 1830. The extent of the designed landscape includes the surrounding uplands which are important to the setting. Beyond this the influence of design is apparent for some distance in the form and detailing of estate buildings, houses and villages. Today the central core of the designed landscape, excluding the forestry plantations, extends to a total area of some 2,687 acres (1,087ha).

Site History

The designed landscape was first laid out in the mid-18th century and most of the woodlands were planted in the late 18th and early 19th century. The formal gardens were made in the mid-19th century and were removed in the mid-20th century.

In 1269 the first tower of the Castle was built and in 1457 the Earldom of Atholl was conferred on the ancestors of the present family. During the political upheavals of the 17th century the Atholls sided with the Royalists and the Castle was taken by Cromwell's army. After the restoration of Charles II, the 2nd Earl was created the 1st Marquess of Atholl and their son was later created the 1st Duke of Atholl by Queen Anne in 1703. Works were carried out to the landscape at various points subsequently with the 2nd Duke being responsible for the original layout of the parkland, the 4th Duke being notable for the pioneering forestry planting and the 7th Duke being responsible for the reinstatement of the formal gardens.

Landscape Components

Architectural Features

Blair Castle, listed category A, was first built in 1269 and was altered in the early 17th century to make the stronghold of the Murray Clan more habitable. It was extended for James, the 2nd Duke, by James Winter between 1745 - 58. Roger Morris prepared designs but some of his alterations were not made until after his death. The 7th Duke, John, employed David Bryce to 'rebaronialise' the castle and between 1869-71 the turrets were built. Further alterations took place in 1886 by J.C. Walker. In 1905 J. McIntyre Henry undertook further work and finally, in 1920-21, Sir Robert Lorimer was asked to assist.

In the designed landscape at Blair Castle, there are a wealth of ornaments, follies and eyecatchers, most of which remain. 16 are listed as category B and 5 as category C. The Gothic Folly called 'The Whim', listed category A and built in 1762, is still an important eyecatcher on the hill to the north of the Castle. Smaller features are still in the grounds including Hercules made in 1743, the Obelisk in 1742, Tom-na-croiche in 1755, two Bridges constructed in 1756 and 1758, and several later additions between 1867 and 1899 including Lady Jean's Well, West Lodge, the Dairy and the Statue of Diana.

Parkland

The parkland covers most of the valley floor and is edged by woodlands. The pattern of fields was probably originally laid out c.1680 and the area was then developed by the 2nd Duke, James, in what seems reminiscent of the Dutch style. This is shown in the Tinney Survey of 1744, possibly with the assistance of William Boutcher. Avenues radiated out from the Castle and lined the King's Highway which then ran through the park from east to west. Subsequent development took place under the 4th Duke, John, and can be seen on the 1st edition OS map of 1862. No designer is known to have been associated with this work. Later Victorian embellishments were added, including the Wellingtonia Avenue which runs from the Castle north-west to The Whim.

The outline of the early park is still easily seen but planting dating between 1930 - 1950 has masked some of the important detail, and recent field boundaries have changed the overall pattern. Some of the parkland area is cultivated. Few of the 18th century trees remain, and there is little sign of replacement planting. Tulach Park on the south side of the River Garry, on the lower slopes of Tulach Hill, is a survival of the early 18th century planting. The shape is still apparent but many of the beech trees are overmature and have fallen or been blown down. (Since the 1982 survey, there has been some replacement planting in the park).

Woodland

Some woodland was planted in about 1680 by the 1st Marquess. The 2nd Duke used it to frame and emphasise his 'grand design'. The 4th Duke, John, is said to have planted over 10,000 acres with over 14 million larch trees. He pioneered the planting of conifers in the uplands, and the subsequent use of softwoods in commercial forestry has its origins in his experiments, many of which were undertaken at Blair. Planting and forestry management have continued over the years and there is an active commercial forestry policy, at Blair. Today the woodlands themselves are mainly conifers although The Whim plantation has a band of broadleaved trees around the Folly itself. The Wilderness area is also planted mainly with conifers, and occasional broadleaved clumps remain.

Within the park there are several woodland copses which were originally part of the formal design; these include the 'Monument' plantation, 'Sheep Pen' plantation and the 'Obelisk' plantation. The 'Monument' plantation was planted around a square 'bassin' or pond and an Obelisk. These ornaments were sited on either side of a formal avenue from the Castle to the Old Road, now the drive. The 'bassin' was turned into an informal lake probably by the 4th Duke, John, and was subsequently surrounded by a plantation in about 1870 and underplanted with shrubs, laurels, and rhododendrons. Little remains of the design today. The 'Sheep Pen' plantation was planted around an informal lake at the same time, when some exotic trees such as the copper beech and Norway maple were planted near the water. It could have been modified as a duck flighting pond. This area is now managed commercially. The 'Obelisk' plantation appeared in the 1744 plan as a large wilderness surrounding an Obelisk. The wood also indicated the entrance from the old Inverness Road (the King's Highway). Although part of it appeared on the 1st edition OS Plan of 1862, there is no evidence of it today. (Since the 1982 survey much of the woodland to the north-west of the Castle has been replanted).

The Gardens

The Diana's Grove area was originally called a Wilderness in the 1744 plan. The areas between the rides and paths were laid out by the 2nd Duke and his gardener, and planting plans still exist from about 1737. A Temple of Fame was included in the area. One of the first plantings of larch took place at this time and four of these trees still exist. A large pinetum was laid out between 1850 - 1870, possibly from a plan drawn by James Gray. Many fine conifers remain today and over 150 have been measured by Alan Mitchell in 1978 when the tallest Douglas fir had grown to over 178' (54.24m), and most of the trees were over 41m tall. (Since the survey the trees were measured again in 1985 and the Douglas fir had grown nearly another 2m).

When the grounds were originally laid out there were six separate formal gardens. One has completely disappeared but the remains of the others can be seen today. The gardens around the Castle were originally created as part of the large formal landscape and were shown in 1744 as extensive walled terraces with parterres, a bowling green and a sundial on the lower terrace. The gardens were re-created by W.A. Nesfield in the formal style and photographs around 1878 show the borders and banks. They have all been removed and only the grass and paths remain. (Since the survey the statue of 'Father Time' has been restored).

The Entrance Courtyard lies to the east of the Castle. The main entrance used to run along a formal avenue, which ran from the Castle north-east to just south of the Chapel where it joined the Old King's Highway. The group of trees to the east of the Castle is planted over a canal created from the Banvie Burn. The driveway used to curl round the canal and crossed the burn on an ornamental bridge. A second avenue led down to the sawmill and Blair Atholl and was called Miln Lane. The canal was filled in and the drive altered to the present one from Blair Atholl in about 1760, when the 4th Duke inherited. The area today is bare of ornamentation and the grass sweeps up to the Castle on all sides.

Walled Gardens

The Walled Garden lies to the east of the Castle on the edge of the woodland where the statue of Hercules stands. The water garden was originally laid out by the 2nd Duke, James, assisted by John James' book 'The Theory and Practice of Gardening', and helped by John Wilson in c.1750. Detailed plans exist of the work proposed. The Garden still has good mid 18th century sculpture in the wall niches. A large conservatory was built in 1807 and the water garden was restored c1888. The garden continued as the kitchen garden until about 1950 when the vegetables were replaced with Christmas Trees. These were not felled and are now overgrown. A few remnants of the box hedges can still be seen, and the outline of the ponds can still be traced although they are now overgrown boggy areas. The doorway and paths can just be seen. The garden is therefore largely derelict and one of the walls has collapsed in recent years. (Since the survey this wall has been repaired and the Christmas Trees removed. Another crop has been planted as a holding operation).

References

Bibliography

Sources

Printed Sources

GC i 1877, 683-84, 720

B.Jones, Follies & Grottoes 1974, 98

J.Harris, Artist and the Country House 1979, 285

T. Hunter, 1883

Guide, Blair Castle

Plans - Diana's Grove or Wilderness, 1737, PTD/127/25 + many others

Arthur Oswald, CL 1949, Nov.

John Tinney, Plan of Castle Gardens 1747

J.C. Loudon, 1824

A.A. Tait, 1980

A. Mitchell, Tree Survey 1978

Groome's, 1882

Listings

NMRS, Engravings & Photographs

About the Inventory of Gardens and Designed Landscapes

Historic Environment Scotland is responsible for the designation of buildings, monuments, gardens and designed landscapes and historic battlefields. We also advise Scottish Ministers on the designation of historic marine protected areas.

The inventory is a list of Scotland's most important gardens and designed landscapes. We maintain the inventory under the terms of the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979.

We add sites of national importance to the inventory using the criteria published in the Historic Environment Scotland Policy Statement.

The information in the inventory record gives an indication of the national importance of the site(s). It is not a definitive account or a complete description of the site(s). The format of records has changed over time. Earlier records may be brief and some information will not have been recorded.

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Images

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Printed: 17/11/2018 04:21